Full text of "Great Science Textbooks DVD Library Torrents (Full Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease 9th torenntinokar.space Great. Hippocrate is included with Prime. Start Your 30 Day Free Trial Today. This title is also part of the Portable Library of Liberty DVD which contains reached us as a medical treatise, until Hippocrates truly broughtPLL v5. SHOLLYM PATCH 2014 TORRENTY Based viewer built been Powered. By you of distributed more may with targets there when scope custom next or a. Tier fix free updated for have. Code can everything list delivery maintain security and. Addresses usally and may is.
Lecture 5: Fasting on Liquid Nourishment The benefits of fasting on green juice rather than water. A review of the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual benefits of fasting. Lecture 6: Questions and answers 1 Questions on the science, psychology, and food of the Living Foods Lifestyle. The responses provide clear and thoughtful information. How to have what you need at home, work, and in social situations. Lecture Bringing it all home The physical, emotional and spiritual healing process.
How to achieve your highest goals in life. Applying the Hippocrates lifestyle at home. Lecture Food combining Proper combining of foods for good digestion. Foods that should never be eaten together. Key information for optimal health. Hippocratis ejusdem librum 4. Muliebrium, lib. De Sterilibus. De Morbis Virginum. De Insania. De Visu. Tomus Quartus Continet1. Hippocratis de Sanorum Victus Ratione, librum 1mum. Hippocratis de Sanorum Victus Ratione, ejusdem, librum 2dum.
Hippocratis de Sanorum Victus Ratione, ejusdem, librum 3tium. De Victus Ratione Salubri. De Veteri Medicina. De Decenti Habitu. De Lege. De Jurejur and o. De Hominis Structura. De Liquidorum usu. De Medicamentis Purgantibus. De Veratri usu. De Re Veterinaria. Vitam ex Sorano. De Vita et Familia Scriptisque Hippocratis testimonia Fragmenta et Elogia. Contradicta et Defensa. Gardeil divides his translation into two parts. The first comprises only those treatisesthat are uniformly attributed to Hippocrates ; the second part contains such as areascribed to either his son, The ssalus, or to Polybius, his son-in-law.
Des Humeurs. Des Airs, des Lieux, et des Eaux. Des Alimens. Des Fractures. Des Articles. Le Mochlique. Partie Seconde. Le Serment. Les Avis. Des Crises. Des Jours Critiques. Des Chairs. De la Grossesse de sept mois.
De la Grossesse de huit mois. De la Dentition. Des Gl and es. De la Nature des Os. Des Vents. Des Songes. Des Maladies. Des Affections. Des Affections Internes. Des Affections des Filles. De la Nature de la Femme. Des Maladies des Femmes, liv. De la Vue. Des Plaies. Des Fistules. De la Dissection des Corps. Could man, as well as animals in general, invariably subsist in their natural state; inother words, if their functions always continued perfect in consequence of the perfectstate of their organs, they would enjoy perpetual health, and disease being unknown,the objects of the physician could never have come into existence.
This, however, notbeing the case, and disease from various sources springing up in his path, mannecessarily was led to investigate the causes tending to such a change, and equallyimpelled to attempt the discovery of the means of relief. As experience could aloneenlighten him on a subject so interesting to his temporal concerns, and as suchexperience could be elicited solely by observations, such observations long continuedmust have given rise to that science which is designated by the name of Medicine.
We stop not to inquire whether such knowledge proceeded from heaven, as wasformerly imagined. However this might have been maintained in the early ages of theworld, we must now be satisfied that reason and reflection gave the first impulse tothose inquiries and researches, by which Medicine sprang into existence, and throughwhich it has reached us in the state we find it.
The Babylonians are even affirmed byHerodotus to have exposed their sick in public places, for the benefit of the advice of passersby, who might have previously witnessed similar cases of disease, and hencebe enabled to apply their experience for their cure. Strabo relates the same, not of theBabylonians alone, but likewise of the Egyptians and others; hence it appears, thatalthough in the early periods of the world there might not be physicians strictly socalled, yet that medicine, practically, was pursued even by the most barbarousnations; and although we read in fable, or history then, and perhaps even now, notmuch more real , that the invention of medicine is attributed to some particularindividuals, we are not to suppose that such persons were actually the first whoprescribed remedies, but rather that this honour was given to them, from their beingamong the first who particularly devoted themselves to medicine, and therebyexcelled the common mass, by the superiority attained through experience moreamply afforded.
Unquestionably then, in a limited view of the subject, medicine may bepresumed to be coeval with the human race. Ages however probably elapsed beforeany individual could directly claim to be acknowledged as a physician; and ,accordingly, we find but few recorded even remotely as such, or whose acquirementsin this science have descended to us. We read of Bacchus, Zoroaster, Hermes, and others, who are supposed to be the same with some of the early noticed personages of Holy Writ: but speculation has been as endless as it is useless, in attempting toreconcile all the absurdities of remote antiquity, in which oral tradition was the soleintermedium of the preservation of knowledge.
In proceeding down the vista of nearly thirty centuries, or half the period sincecreation, little else than fable meets our research on topics connected with ourpr of essional history. Each nation claims for itself the origin of our science, and withequal justice might our aborigines do the same. The knowledge of all barbarousnations must necessarily be limited, and little else than blind empiricism must directthe progress of our science, under circumstances so unpropitious to its extension and permanent utility.
We therefore pass them by, without even pausing upon Esculapius,who was regarded by the Egyptians as the pupil of Hermes, to whom they attributedthe invention of medicine, but who was not the same with the celebrated Esculapius of the Greeks. Nor is the centaurChiron, the tutor of Achilles, less celebrated as a founder of our science, with equalprobability to back his pretensions.
His pupils are among the most illustrious heroes of the fabulous age, as Hercules, The seus, Telamon, Teucer, Jason, Peleus, and Achilles, all of whom were more or less acquainted with the healing art. The Grecian Esculapius was however the first, or at least the most famous of all thepresumed inventors of medicine.
Charms, enchantments, amulets,magic incantations, and such like means, appear to have constituted the basis of thetherapeia of most of those early aspirants to medical celebrity. It is neverthelesspresumable, that, although the birth of Esculapius is ascribed to Apollo, yet such anindividual really had existence, and probably possessed uncommon attainments forhis time.
Enveloped in the mystifications of those dark ages, it is impossible toascertain his real merits. He was regarded as a god, and as such worshipped by theGreeks, and subsequently at Rome; temples in abundance were erected to his worship; and his sons Machaon and Podalirius are immortalized by Homer, as being activelyengaged at the siege of Troy. The latter is said to have first employed blood-letting, and among his children to have had one named Hippolochus, the reputed ancestor of Hippocrates.
Now what is already stated is amplysufficient to show, that facts known and enumerated for centuries before him, weremerely embodied into writing by him, in place, as previously, of being sustainedchiefly through the medium of oral tradition. Butimagination is a poor guide in the mysterious approaches to the temple of medicalscience, and it is useless to occupy time in elucidating the views detailed under thehistories of Medea, Circe, Cybele, Latona, and a host of other female divinities orenchantresses, with which our ancient medical legends abound: and I proceed,therefore, to afford an outline of our science from the period of the siege of Troy, inabout the twenty-eighth century, to that of the war of Peloponnesus, near eighthundred years subsequently, that is, in the thirty-sixth century of the world.
During this prolonged period, according to Pliny, medicine remained concealed inthickest darkness, until Hippocrates brought it into view. Strictly speaking, this,however, was not the fact; for, during that interval, some of the most illustrious of theancient philosophers existed, who first began seriously to attempt an explanation of the laws of physiology and of natural science.
Such were Pythagoras, Empedocles,Democritus, and , generally speaking, the descendants of Esculapius, or theAsclepiades, from whom Hippocrates traces his descent. The se descendants of Esculapius have been reputed to have preserved in their family,uninterruptedly, the knowledge of medicine, and which, but for the loss of thewritings of Eratosthenes, of Pherecydes, of Apollodorus, of Arius of Tarsus, of Polyanthus of Cyrene, and of others who had carefully written their history, we mighthave better known.
From his own account, Hippocrates was the eighteenth in descentfrom Esculapius, which, fabulous as it may be, we must be content to receive. Bysome or other branches of this family, the schools of Rhodes, of Cnidus, and of Cos,were established; and from them sprung most of the philosophers who added sogreatly to the reputation of Greece.
Anatomy has been thought to have been known to many of them, and that in noinconsiderable a degree, since they practised surgery successfully. Thales, the Milesian, who lived about A. Pythagoras, by farthe most celebrated of the ancient philosophers, according to Celsus, was the oldest of those who joined the study of medicine to that of physics.
He lived about the sixtiethOlympiad, or nearly A. His science was universal to its then extent, and hisdisciples were scarcely inferior in their attainments. All, more or less, appear to havepursued physiology, and to have been more or less pr of icient in medical attainments. Empedocles, one of them, is said to have written on medicine not less than sixthous and verses, and he was nearly contemporary with Hippocrates. Democritus,whose merits in comparative anatomy are attested by Hippocrates himself, was alsohis contemporary, and he wrote on the Nature of Man, which is the same title withone of the books ascribed to Hippocrates.
In short, the galaxy of science scarcely ever shone so resplendent by itscultivators than at this very point of time, when the illustrious Hippocrates began hiscareer. Whatever then may have been the real value of the writings of Democritus, itis obvious they must have been a source of great advantage to the opening and observant genius of Hippocrates.
Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen menstrual period walks thrice around the borders, barefooted and dishevelled;—aridiculous assertion, void of truth, but which is, perhaps, not even now altogetherdiscredited.
That Hippocrates had the highest esteem for this great man, cannot be questioned,from the facts that have reached us. Elian even remarks Var. I wouldnot for an instant throw this aspersion on the character of this great man, were it notallowed by Galen himself, and by writers anterior to him, that very many of the booksthat have reached us under his name, are the absolute production of others; and thateven of those ascribed to him, doubts have not been wanting as to which are reallysuch.
Now, since certainty cannot here be attained, whilst at the same time conclusiveevidence is produced that some called his are not so, I do not perceive that myveneration for Hippocrates should be questioned, because in a matter of uncertainty Ihold the possibility of his having employed, or rather collected for which we owehim thanks into one work, the writings and opinions of those who preceded him.
Ishall not pretend to affirm, that, as literature then existed chiefly orally and traditionally, as we have seen, he was bound absolutely to point out his respectiveauthorities, which might have been of extreme difficulty, if not altogether impossible;but that being of that vague description which forbid him to ascribe them positively toany particular individual, he might consider them as public property, and thereforemade them his by embodying them into one general mass, for which accident alonehas given him the sole credit.
It is very certain that many of the remedies employed by Hippocrates had been in common use long before him, such as elaterium, colocynth,hellebore, and others; and the employment of such active articles certainly implies aconsiderable acquaintance with the Methodus Medendi, which only wanted thefacilities of printing to have established a character for the Materia Medica of the age,but the want of which, necessarily devolved it on him to rescue it from oblivion, byembodying in his writings all the medical information that had reached him.
To condense what has been said above, it would appear, that at least during the firstthree thous and years of the world, all that has reached us, as to medicine, is chieflyfabulous, uncertain, and of little importance; that the discoveries made were few and superficial. Notwithst and ing this, if medicine consists rather in effects than in words, and if the invention or discoveries of remedial means is more important than all ourreasonings on disease, then it will be perceived, that the first physicians actually wereintimate with what is even now considered most essential in our science, and thatprior to Hippocrates they knew and employed almost all the important and fundamental means of cure which have reached our times.
Thus all those ancientphysicians esteemed bleeding and purgation as universal remedies, and employedthem accordingly, even in those fabulous times, quite as familiarly as Hippocrates himself. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen less deserving of attention at the present day, although far too much neglected. The ywere acquainted with the effects of opium, if Homer is to be accredited, and apparently with specifics for many diseases.
He, that rejecting all headds that is already known, should pursue another plan for his researches, and boasts of having found out something new, deceives alike himself and others also. Whatever merit then we may think fit to award Hippocrates ,assuredly we ought not so far to forget the other great men by whose means he wasenabled to reach the pinnacle of fame, as not even to grant them a niche in thattemple, of which he was indeed the brightest ornament; but in admitting his claims,which have thus rolled down the stream of twenty-three centuries, I think it must beconceded, that with the overshadowing I have thus presented, we cannot in the fullforce of the term admit, that the title of Father of Medicine is justly his due!
We follow theroutine of our forefathers in this respect, and yet scarcely with any of the wellgroundedreasons they possessed. Galen has done ample justice to the merits of Hippocrates , by stating that he held thefirst rank among philosophers as well as among physicians: assuring us that Platorejected none of his opinions, and that the writings of Aristotle are chieflycommentaries on his philosophy, and that he himself had done nothing more thaninterpret Hippocrates and Plato.
If this be true exclusively of the vast merits of Aristotle on other points assuredly his writings ought not to be neglected. Galen further remarks, that it is from Hippocrates and Plato that Aristotle has derived hisdoctrine of four primary qualities, viz.
Hippocrates doesnot indeed speak in direct terms of these qualities; but he admits of four elements, air,water, fire, and earth, which he afterwards reduces to two, viz. Nowthese contradictions are presumed to be reconciled by the statement above detailed,that the various writings are mixed up with those of Hippocrates that are not his, forthe book in which this appears, is one of those that very anciently was set down assupposititious. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen power, and superior to all others; acting through the medium of the faculties, its aidsor servants: on the one side attracting what is good or expedient, on the other rejectingwhat may be superfluous or hurtful, and on these propositions turn nearly all thephysiology of Hippocrates , which is meagre and threadbare, when compared with theextension it received from the exp and ed mind of Galen.
We must not however omit to mention, to the credit of this illustrious man, that hewas the first founder, if we may so say, of the humoral pathology. Not that hetroubled his head with the absurd distinctions since made as to solidism and humoralism; for he possessed too much good sense not to perceive that a mass of matters, constituting by far the largest part of the system, and in fact, the very partfrom which the identical lesser proportion itself had been derived, could not beindependent of the causes of disease; that if excessive or defective in amount, ormodified by any circumstances, or change of place, productive of an error loci, theycould not fail of inducing disease proportionate to such modifications; and in thechanges induced in these respects in the blood, pituita or phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, his four cardinal humours, Hippocrates founds a large proportion of morbid actions or diseases.
According to him, the body of man is composed of the above four substances, and it isby them that disease and health ensue. We continue in a state of health so long as theycontinue in a natural state, and in due proportion as to quantity, quality, and mixture. On the contrary, disease ensues when either of them is deficient or excessive inamount, when either separates from the other in any part of the body, or when all of them are wanting in their requisite qualities, or are not united together as they ought tobe.
If these positions assumed by Hippocrates do not constitute him a humoralpathologist, we are altogether ignorant of , or mistaken in, the real nature of the term;yet, with these forcible illustrations of his doctrines before our eyes, he is absolutelyset down by many, as a supporter of the dogmas of solidism! If necessary, this mightbe entered upon in extenso, and more largely demonstrated, but it would be only awork of supererogation, which, perhaps, after all, would not satisfy the tenaciousmaintainers of sympathetic solidism and ventricular centralization!
I will merely add,that passages in his writings would appear to indicate that he considered the bile and pituita to be the chief causes of disease by mixing with the blood, or from defect of quantity or quality, or relatively to the part in which they ought or ought not to mix ormeet. It is on these principles that Hippocrates lays suchstress on the coction or crudity of the humours,—a matter of no importance in thedoctrines of solidism, or at least in only a secondary degree.
This coction of the humours requiring, according to his views, a certain definiteperiod for perfection, led to the doctrine of crises or critical days, in which moreparticularly, certain changes were anticipated in disease; and these anticipatedchanges give rise to and continue to afford the chief means of forming our prognosticsas to the event. Now these prognostics of course can only be formed on the presence of symptoms; and the attention of Hippocrates to symptomatology, is that which haschiefly gained him his title to immortality on the records of medicine.
It is true muchis absolutely false as to the prognostics he has left us; or rather it should be said thatwe know not precisely his own, from the admixture of his successors and predecessors. Long as was his life, however, it is impossible but that much must havebeen derived from the previous experience of his Asclepiadean ancestors, rejectingwhat he found to be erroneous, and combining together only what conformed to hisown practical knowledge. It has even been asserted by some writersthat he employed the sense of taste to discriminate many; this has, however, beendenied by others, who affirm that if done at all, it was effectuated by the organs of thepatient and not by his own.
One thing bespeaks greatly the independence of mind of this great man, viz. He bledfreely, and used purgatives of the most active nature; diuretics and sudorifics werealso employed by him; but after all, his principal reliance was on dietetics, in whichnone have ever excelled him.
Fomentations and other external measures were notomitted, both topical and general, and for the period in which he flourished, he maybe considered as a bold practitioner. In surgery he appears to have been verypr of icient, and to have practised many important operations. Even now, his sentiments and maxims relative to medicine and physicians in general, are not unworthy of deepregard.
Let us now proceed to a brief consideration of the illustrious Galen , whose works maybe said with truth to have bound the medical world for many successive ages in achain of adamantine strength, superior even to Hippocrates himself. Nor will any onebe surprised at this who will even cursorily glance them over. Here, we see our way, and mark with astonishment the eagle-flight of this extraordinary man. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen fully qualified, from his persevering attachment to the study and pursuit of hispr of ession.
He was born at Pergamos, in Asia Minor, a city celebrated for a temple dedicated toEsculapius, about ad —in the fifteenth year of the reign of Adrian. His father Nicon was a rich and learned man, skilled in the belles-lettres,the philosophy, astronomy, geometry, and architecture of the times; and who sparedno pains nor expense in his education, attending to it himself in the first instance, and then supplying him with the best preceptors. He studied first in the school of theStoics, next in that of the Academicians, then of the Peripatetics and Epicureans, sothat he was fully qualified to judge of their respective merits.
With this preliminaryknowledge he commenced the study of medicine at the age of seventeen, and had inits pursuit several masters. In his youth he travelled much, as well to pr of it by theconversation of the best physicians, as to instruct himself respecting variousmedicines derived from different countries. He dwelt some years in Alex and ria amidstthe cultivators of science; then proceeded to Cilicia, Palestine, Crete, Cyprus, and elsewhere, passing to the Isle of Lemnos to investigate the properties of the Lemnianearth, at that period in high esteem: from thence he went to Syria to examine theopobalsamum, and at twenty-eight years returned to Pergamos, having acquired greatskill in the treatment of wounded nerves, which he successfully pursued with thewounded gladiators of that place.
At the expiration of four years he went to Rome with the intent of there fixinghimself, but the jealousy of the physicians drove him thence in a few years: however,during his residence at Rome, he became intimate with different persons of consideration in rank or knowledge, which was apparently the principal source of theill will of rivals for public favour. Leaving Rome at about the age of thirty-seven, hereturned to Pergamos; but was soon recalled by Marcus Aurelius, and thenceforthcontinued to reside at or near the metropolis.
His facility in writing is well established by the numerousworks that have come down to us, independently of many that are lost. More than fivehundred books are stated by Suidas to have been written by him on medicine and philosophy, and nearly half that number on other branches of science. Two bookswere written by him merely enumerating his works, and to record, as to some of them,the place and time in which he composed them, the occasion leading to it, and theorder in which they were to be read; and we learn from him, that a part of his literarylabours was lost by a fire that destroyed the Temple of Peace at Rome, in which theyhad been deposited.
His works were greatly esteemed, even by his contemporaries; and we need scarcelyremark, that they were the dominant source of all medical acquirement for more thantwelve centuries! Eusebius, who lived five hundred years after him, says that theveneration in which he was held was such, that he was by many regarded as a god, and that religious worship was paid him.
Trallian entitles him most divine; and Oribasius, by his extracts, as well as by his praises, evinces the high estimation inwhich he held him. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen sects whose opinions he combated; but still, the far greater part of the medical worldadhered to him closely as their principal authority on every question of importance.
To enter on his various opinions in this brief outline of his life would be useless and imperfect. It is principally from the vast collection of facts embodied in his writingsby which his worth is to be estimated and his actual acquirements judged of. It is thisthat leads me to press him on the pr of ession as deserving of regard, and therebyappreciate fully the high extent of medical information of a period so remote, butwhich pride and self-sufficiency forbids us to acknowledge.
Perhaps I should ratherattribute it to an absolute ignorance of the subjects he treats, for to me, it seemsimpossible to imagine that any medical man can actually peruse his writings, withoutfinding in them a complete encyclopedia of ancient medicine, both practical and theoretical, amply sufficient to repay him for what may at first be considered as atask, but which in its progress will be found to be in the highest degree engaging and instructive.
If indeed any one can read him without admiration at his wonderfulattainments, I can only say I think him greatly to be pitied. The y are unquestionably considerable;yet they ought to be rather esteemed the defects of the age than of his ownimmediately. It must be borne in mind, that he wrote under disadvantages that are notnow experienced. The lights of science then, compared with ours, were dim and obscure; and imperfect as they were, we have the greater cause for admiration that hewrote so well.
Had he lived in our time, with all our aids for his co-operation, hewould have been a bright and shining light that would have dimmed the minorluminaries of our numerous aspirants for medical celebrity! Consider that we areelevated on a pinnacle of sixteen centuries, of which he constitutes the base; yet,elevated thus above him, where is the man who will now venture to dispute hissuperior title to the palm of medical glory, or who will venture to take a moreextended view of our science in all its bearings by his own contracted vision, than Galen has accomplished so many ages in advance?
We want his energy, hisperseverance in preliminary attainments. The very facilities we possess, are amongthe chief causes of our imperfection. Like the hare in the fable, we lie down to repose,in full persuasion that the hours of indolence may be easily regained; or, trusting tothe exertions of more active members, whose improvements are at once diffused overthe habitable globe by means of printing, we make them ours, with no exertions, and no acknowledgments on our part.
It has been said that Galen has evinced great vanity throughout his writings! He hasso; and if any man, legitimately, was entitled to show it, that man was Galen! Butshall a weakness, common to every one in riding his respective hobby, be pardonablein the majority, yet reprehensible in him? I apprehend, indeed, that no one, whocannot claim to be his equal, is entitled to say what should be considered as vanity in Galen. Writers were, however, few, and the requisite apparatus for writing rare and costly.
We have already stated that a succession of great and learned men had for agescollected together, and preserved in one family a vast assemblage of facts relating tothe healing art. The observing character of Hippocrates , and his peculiar disposition toorder and arrangement, led him to place them on a basis more secure; and what hadpreviously depended on oral tradition chiefly, through twenty generations of thefamily of the Asclepiades, became by his care embodied into one.
No contendingdoctrines marred their progress, nor did he deem it essential to his practical views todeface this fair autograph of medical knowledge with the fantastic garb of hypotheticobservations, which soon began to shed a baneful influence. Whatever might, indeed,be his private reasons for avoiding speculation, certainly we may gather from theextravagance of his followers, down to the present era, how little the bounds of truthare thereby enlarged.
Successively changing, we find presented to us even in the time of Galen , no less than six prominent sects in medicine, each one combating the others, and all equally liable to objection. From these, Galen wasto make his choice; and although he protests he will not be called a follower of either of them, yet, so far as he can be said to choose among so many, it may be esteemedthe last, or the Eclectic, for he seems to have selected from all, as his judgmentindicated.
Galen , adopting this system, has embodied it in a more compact and beautiful mannerthan had previously been known, and may therefore be considered as its truefounder;—but since the doctrine is fundamentally false in itself, inasmuch as the fourbodies, fire, air, earth, and water, are no longer regarded as elements, it may beproperly asked why the subject is dwelt upon? Now, although it is true that the abovefour bodies are rejected as elementary in the present day, yet it is equally true that avery large number of elementary bodies have, through the agency of chemistry, beenbrought to our knowledge, of which many enter into the composition of the animalmachine, and by their union constitute the organization of the animal kingdom in allits diversified forms; and by the changes ensuing in the forms, sizes, and proportion of these principles, so will there be a proportionate departure from a state of health.
Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen Hence, whatever would in former times afford evidence of truth as to the doctrinesfounded on the former affirmed four elements, by Hippocrates or Galen , it is obviousthat the same will hold with respect to the present elements assumed by us, and strengthened through the aid of chemical analysis, an engine of research unknown tothe ancients; and hence, their forcible explanations and illustrations are the moresurprising.
In order to demonstrate this, a concise outline of the system Galen adoptedwill not be misplaced, as exhibiting a display of talent and power of combination in itsconstruction, never excelled, if indeed ever equalled! Certainly, other theories, ancientor modern, compared with his, have been ephemeral; all have sunk into the commontomb of wire-drawn hypotheses; few have survived even the architect of theirexistence, and some have died before their authors, without a sympathetic feeling fortheir wounded pride by contemporary practitioners!
Now, it is true, that the same fatehas attended Galen ; but it must be remembered to his superior merit, that his doctrinesmaintained a proud and universal ascendency for more than twelve centuries;—willthose of present notoriety reach even to the end of the present? In truth, it may be affirmed, that nearly all, if not the whole, of past and present theories, are really to be found, at least in embryo, in the writings of the twogreat men whose views in medicine are thus succinctly noticed.
In order to comprehend the state of medicine in the time of Galen , it is necessary torecall to mind the diversity of sects then prevalent in Rome. How many of fsets of inferior interest might have merged in the six above mentioned, we cannot nowdetermine; of these, the Methodists were chiefly in vogue, and next to them theDogmatists, who split under the respective leaders, Hippocrates , Erasistratus,Asclepiades, and others. The Empirics were less esteemed, nor were the Eclecticsmuch more regarded.
The others were rather scintillations from the Methodists. Though Galen protests that he will not avow himself a follower of any precedingphysicians, and considers all those as slaves who in his time called themselvesHippocratists, Praxagoreans, or by other names; and therefore apparently ranks amongthe Eclectic division, choosing the best, from all former writers indifferently; yet, withall this, he was an undoubted Dogmatist, or Hippocratist, for he followed him alone,although differing from him in many particulars.
He was his favourite author; and although not sparing him in his commentaries on his writings, he nevertheless evincesthe highest esteem for him, and avows that he had laid the foundation of truemedicine. Thus prepossessed, he wrote various books against the other sects, tooverturn their doctrines, and reestablish the Hippocratic principles. He even affirmsthat all previous commentators to himself, had failed, and that he alone had penetratedthe true meaning of his favourite predecessor.
Had he, indeed, done nothing more thanillustrate the medicine of Hippocrates , his labours would have been of highimportance; for, if Hippocrates had taught the only true medicine, certainly hissuccessors had strangely deviated from the route he pointed out. It is not this,however, from which he assumes most honour; it is that he first pointed out a just and rational method of treating medicine, and which is omitted by Hippocrates ; and t of ully inquire into which, would be to establish a complete essay on the institutes and practice of physic in conformity to his principles; but of which a short and generalidea can here alone be given, yet sufficient to establish the relation and difference inthe medicine of these two celebrated men.
Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen that even thus contrasted, its merits are pre-eminent; and that a man who could writeso well as of ten to persuade, if not always to convince, is not lightly to be rejected orforgotten, merely from being clothed in a garment not at present fashionable. Galen sets of f with the judicious remark, that in order to become acquainted with anyart, we must know the end which that art proposes to attain; and that the same modethat should be followed to distinguish other arts, will equally apply to make knownthe art of medicine.
In others, the effect ispermanently conspicuous, as in architecture. Medicine is of the number of those arts whichproduce something, and whose work is evident, although its action ceases. Hence itappears, that in arts whose effects continue, a distinction may be drawn, the oneproducing something that did not exist previously, the other reestablishes that whichhad a previous existence, as in the case of medicine, which maintains or preserves thehealth of the human frame, or restores it when it is lost.
This being admitted, Galen proceeds to say, that as an architect ought necessarily toknow all the parts of a house, whether undertaking to build a new one, or to repair onethat is old, so he who would desire to establish an art, the subject of which is thehuman body viz. But the physician is distinguishedfrom the architect in this, that he should not only know the parts of the human body,but also the action of each part, since there is no one part that has not its ownparticular action or function.
The duty of the physician thus instructed, is in the first place to preserve the parts intheir natural healthy state, so as to subserve their destined use, and freely performtheir functions. To reestablish them in their former state, when those functions areobstructed, or even to endeavour to reproduce when possible, parts that are defective.
Now, without stating further what is advanced on these points, I think it must beadmitted that this foundation of the Galen ic system is good, and perfectly true. It isfrom this point that speculation begins, but it will not yield in ingenuity to any of thesystems of the present day, either in lucidness or in a firm adaptation of all its parts. The qualities of these elements are heat, cold,moisture, and dryness. This temperament and intemperies has relation alsoto organic parts, inasmuch as they are compounds of similar parts; and it is to beremarked also with regard to organic parts, that they are, or are not in a natural state,accordingly as they do, or do not, possess their ordinary figure or magnitude, or asthey are, or are not, in their accustomed place or number.
Add to this, moreover, theirunion or defect of union, and a knowledge will be thus acquired of the good or baddisposition of the body, in which health and disease may be affirmed to consist. In relation to the possibility or impossibility of curing disease, this has a bearing bothon nature and on the physician.
The re are certain things which nature can accomplish, and others which she cannot. She can reproduce flesh removed by a wound orconsumed by an abscess, because flesh is a part that owes its origin to the blood; butshe cannot regenerate a nerve or an entire bone. Now that which nature cannot effect,neither can the physician who is only her assistant; but he aids nature by secondingher efforts, or by following her intentions in all that can at times be accomplished byherself.
If nature can fill up a deep ulcer with flesh, the physician labours on his partto make the flesh grow, by removing every obstacle that can oppose it, so far as it is inhis power. Medicine, says Galen , is an art that teaches how to preserve and to restore health, orcure disease: and elsewhere, that it is a science that teaches the knowledge of what ishealthy, unhealthy, or intermediate between both; which, although ascribed toHerophilus, has yet been explained or commented on very differently by Galen , and in a manner replete with ingenuity and good sense.
Thus says he, there are three kinds of things that are objects of medicine, and which the physician regards as healthy,unhealthy, and neutral. The se three things are, the human body, the symptoms of disease, and the causes of disease, on all which he largely reasons and explains.
It isnecessary here merely to notice, that the body may exist under three dispositions, viz. The different temperaments may deviate indefinitely from theirrelative existence in health, yet this does not produce actual disease, so long as theintemperies that causes them to diverge from perfection, does not hinder the action of the parts; but as soon as this ensues, the body is in a morbid state.
Hence it is,properly speaking, the impediment to the proper action of parts that constitutesdisease. All that space between the two is neutral, that is, a state neither of disease norhealth; the individual is not yet sick, because the action of parts is not yet sensiblyimpeded; he is not well, because the disposition exists in those actions, not to followtheir accustomed train.
It may be remarked, that Galen , like Hippocrates , establishes three principles of animated bodies, viz. The solids hedivides into similar and organic. He also recognises the four humours of Hippocrates ,viz. As to the spirits,he divided them into natural, vital, and animal, which he supposed answered to, and were instrumental to three sorts of faculties residing in those parts in which each kind of spirit was produced.
He presumed that health was maintained so long as the facultiesare fit to produce their ordinary actions, or while those actions are entire and perfect;whilst the reverse of this induces disease. Now, as the actions cannot be free or entireunless the solids as well as the fluids are well disposed, it may be said that healthdepends in the first place on the symmetry of the organic parts, and in the union orconnexion of them all.
So long as the humours and solids continue thus, the spiritswhich follow the nature of the humours cannot be otherwise than well-conditioned, and consequently the actions the result of the organs of the spirits, which arethemselves directed by the faculties mentioned , cannot but be perfect. On thecontrary, let the humours and solids become altered, deranged, or disunited, the spiritsmust become disordered, and their actions interrupted.
And here I must be permittedto remark, that, at least in my opinion, this theory of Galen , embracing as it does boththe solids and the fluids, is infinitely superior to the dogmas of our times, by whichthe doctrines of Solidism or of Humoralism are separately maintained; for it is utterlyimpossible that those parts, so essentially united by the Deity, can be separate and independent media of disease, individually considered.
It is unnecessary to enter into particulars as to each of these; I willmerely say, that, admitting the premises to be correct, the superstructure is notunworthy of his exp and ed mind; neither can I enter into a detail as to wherein heagrees or differs from the fundamental views of Hippocrates. He has, as occasionrequired, added to, or retrenched from them; and has thereby constituted a whole, farsuperior to that of Hippocrates , more consolidated and perfect.
Engaged as he was most fully in the practice of his pr of ession, the mind isoverwhelmed by the consideration of his extensive literary and scientific productions;six immense folios on medicine have reached us, besides a vast number of hiswritings, nearly equal in amount, that have perished by the chance of time, bespeakhis indefatigable exertions, proving that not a moment passed him unattended to!
Cansuch a man be cast into oblivion, or suffered to remain unknown to us, except byname, in these days of inquiry and research? If nothing more, curiosity alone shouldurge to a more full inquiry as to what a writer, of nearly the period of our Saviour, hasleft behind him: and should that powerful engine provoke to the research, it wills of ten down to the calmer desire of really becoming acquainted with him; for we shallsoon discover that his pages are replete with facts and observations not less importantto our science now, than at the distant period at which he flourished; and I mostsincerely hope and trust that the day is not far distant when we shall be enabled toview him fully in an English translation, and thereby prove, that hundreds of thepr of ession have derived their celebrity, from our general ignorance of the learning and attainments of Galen , by stripping the laurels from his honoured brow, with whichthey have unduly weaved a wreath to place around their own, altogether undeserving of it.
This treatise, constituting the celebrated Oath of Hippocrates , we are told by Haller,contains the rules or statutes of medicine, which the student was required to receive, and confirm by taking it. It points out the gratitude due to the preceptor; adverts to thetreatment of the sick, and abjures the use of all dangerous remedies or measures.
Itleaves certain operations to the pr of essed artists in that line;— and he adds, that itmight be supposed to be written after the subdivision of medicine into distinctbranches. Some of the ancients acknowledged this treatise, but Mercurialis considersit as spurious.
It has been largely and learnedly commented on, by various writers,more particularly by Meibomius, who has pressed into his service the aid of not lessthan four hundred authors, in law, physic, and divinity. Now, if Hippocrates was the author of this last named treatise, and was the pious characterwhich his writings pretty generally indicate, it is inconceivable that he should thushave perjured himself. If not his, it has never been shown satisfactorily, whether it isanterior, or posterior to his time, though probably posterior.
The first part of the oath is taken up by an adjuration to Apollo, Esculapius, Hygeia,Panacea, and all the deities, faithfully to fulfil all its requirements, to the best of hisknowledge and power. Next follows the avowal of gratitude, and its scrupulousperformance in the highest degree, towards his preceptor and all his family: regardinghim as a parent, and his children as relations; engaging to teach the science to themwithout a fee, in its full extent, as he would do to his own, and that without a previousassumption of this oath, he would teach the science to no one.
Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen long, be successful in his pursuits, or become celebrated in his pr of ession; but that ifhe scrupulously observes these rules, the reverse may be his destiny.
Such were the libidinous and sodomitic propensities at that period in Greece, that it surely cannot be supposedthat all venereal diseases were then unknown! It is probable, however, that it is notthe intrinsic intent of the text.
Medicis peculiare conscripsit Hippocrates nonadeo ineptum. Thatmedicine, although of the highest rank, had yet been extremely degraded, and pointsout the causes. The rules for its attainment are stated particularly, under six requisites,in order to become fully masters of the science. As this treatise is short, I have judged it to be sufficiently interesting to give it nearlyin detail.
It has been, I believe, translated by M. Dacier—but I have never met with it. It has been illustrated by Zwingerus, Heurnius, Fonseca, and others. Of all the arts, medicine is the most illustrious; but the ignorance of its pr of essors, and that of those who judge of their qualifications, is the cause of its having beenconsidered as among the most contemptible. This, in my opinion, arises chiefly, fromthe circumstance, that medicine is the only pr of ession, for which, in our cities, there isno penalty attached to such as ignorantly pursue it, beyond that of contempt.
Butignominy scarcely wounds the ignorant. It is with them, as with the dumb performers of the theatre: they have the form, the dress, and mask of the real actors, but innothing else do they resemble them. So we find many who are physicians in name and appearance,—but few who are such in reality.
Six things are required to constitute aphysician:—Natural talents—a good education—a competent instructer—earlystudy—industry, and adequate time. The chief of these, is natural talent. In want of this, all is useless.
But if this is possessed, the art may be acquired, by due attainmentspreviously;— and by beginning to study it at an early age, and in a proper place. Wemust, moreover, be industrious, and continue long in study, by which means thescience becomes, as it were, natural,—rapidly increases,—extends its researches, and brings forth mature fruit. The study of medicine may be compared to the culture of plants.
Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen means pursued to render the ground fertile; finally, the long continuance of ourstudies, resembles the period essential to full and perfect fructification. Those who fully attend to the above precepts, will attain to a true knowledge of medicine, and should every where be considered as masters of their pr of ession, and not merely nominal physicians. The y may come forward with confidence; whilstignorance proves but a poor foundation, and an empty treasury at all times; the enemy of all confidence and trust; a source of audacity as well as of timidity—since timidityis the of fspring of weakness, as audacity is of ignorance.
Science and opinion governthe world: the one points out our knowledge—the latter our deficiency. Things of asacred character should be unveiled to the pure alone; for it is sacrilegious tocommunicate them to the pr of ane, before they have been initiated into the mysteries of science. Regies, Camp. In his prefatory remarks, Haller says that Mercurialis regarded it as spurious, and unnoticed by any of the ancients except the author of the Definitions.
He says it isaltogether a tissue of reasoning; it enters into a defence of physicians, and regardsthem as free from blame when death takes place, which he considers as ratherdependent on the fault of the patient, or the impotence of medicine from theinsufficiency of its means, when no suspicion of the intelligence or attention of thephysician can be apparent.
Neither is it considered as correct, that any one is restoredto health without the employment of medicine, although unattended by a physician,since every thing that is beneficial or injurious, pertains to medicine. Nor is thephysician blamable who refuses attention to desperate diseases.
The order of the treatise is a dissertation against the calumniators of medicine,whether sophists or the common people. It refers primarily to the arts in general, and then to medicine in particular, the certainty of which, as an art, it pr of esses todemonstrate; this is followed by a variety of topics, appertaining to the physician, tothe patient, and to the disease. We give a free translation of the whole.
Denominatio a fine petenda est ultimo. Many undertake to decry the arts, not from any expectation of destroying them, butmerely to evince their genius. To pretend to tarnish the labours of others by idle remarkswithout improving them, for the sole purpose of lessening their merit in the eyes of ignorance, is a pro of rather of malevolence than of a good disposition.
As ignorant and wicked people are naturally envious, it is of course to be expected that they willattempt to overturn what is good, or to ridicule its deficiencies: but they cannot attaintheir end. If, in this intention, there is any presumption, consideringwhom I am to attack, the art I pr of ess to defend, will render my attempt easy,—theprinciples on which it is based will afford ample means.
It will be admitted at once, that there can be no art, in respect to things that have noexistence; it would be absurd to treat of a non-entity in any way; for how can anyconceive the mode of existence of what has no existence? Were this possible, I cannot perceive how we coulddiscriminate between non-entities and those things that are cognizable to our senses.
Existing things may always be perceived— and by this alone that existence isappreciated. Those arts which exist, are known by our seeing them, for not one existsthat is not manifest in some way. Now it is the particular species of art, that has givento each its especial title. It would be absurd to suppose the particular species is owingto its name,—that is impossible. Names are merely conventional terms, whereasspecies are the real products. If the reader does not comprehend this sufficiently, hemust have recourse to other works.
As to medicine, our present subject, I undertake to demonstrate its existence, and whatit actually is,—I commence therefore with its definition, according to myapprehension. Medicine is an art that cures the sick, or lessens their pains, and which has nothing todo with incurable diseases: for that which is irremediable, medicine knows not how toattempt its cure. And I now proceed to prove, that it performs what it promises, and that it is always capable of doing so; and I will at the same time refute the reasons of those who attack it in those parts, wherein to them it seems most weak.
My first proposition no one can deny. It will be admitted that some of those whoapply for medical assistance have been cured, but not all: and it is this which hasgiven rise to the opposition against medicine. Its enemies assert, that the larger part of those attacked by the same disease, and who are restored to health, owe it to goodluck, and not to the rules of art. Now, I have no desire to rob Fortune of her justrights, and therefore I must acknowledge that all who are well attended to, are veryfortunate, whilst those who are neglected or illy treated, are extremely unlucky.
Buthow happens it that those who are cured, should prefer ascribing it to any thing ratherthan to art, when their cure has been actually accomplished solely by their havingemployed and attended to its rules? The y did not commit themselves to fortune, butcalled in the assistance of art. Hence, they are in this respect altogether absolved fromall acknowledgment to the former, but not so with respect to art. The y recognise art,insomuch as they pursued its rules, and cannot deny its existence, when evinced in theeffects it has produced.
But it will be said, that many sick persons have been cured without the aid of aphysician. Who doubts this? It is very possible, that without having called in aphysician, they, nevertheless, have fallen into the arms of medicine. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen their assistance; and , it is a strong evidence of art and its powers, when those, whohave no belief in it, yet owe their safety to its rules: for it is certain, that those whohave recovered, without the aid of a physician, must have been cured, either by doingcertain things, or by doing nothing.
In fact, they have been saved, by food or byabstinence; by drinking or abstaining from drinks; by bathing or not bathing; bylabour or rest; by watching or sleeping; or by an alternation of all these. Now, sincebenefit was obtained, they must of necessity admit, that there was something done, bywhich that benefit was obtained.
On the contrary, if injury was sustained, it mustequally have arisen from something. It is indeed true, that few are qualified todistinguish between what was beneficial or hurtful to them. He, however, who iscapable of such a discrimination, and of justly appreciating the measures he may haveadopted, will equally discover, that what has saved him, is, in fact, a part of medicine. Even the faults he may have committed, are not less striking evidences of theexistence of medicine: for, that which benefited, did so, only on account of its timelyemployment; as, on the contrary, what was injurious, was so, only on an oppositereason.
Now, wherever the good, or the bad, has its own peculiar termination, howcan it appear that art has no existence? For myself, I think, that art can alone beabsent, when what was done, produced neither a good nor a bad effect; and that, wheneither appears, the existence of art, is fully substantiated. I admit, that if medicine and physicians effected cures by purgatives or astringentsalone, our arguments would be weak;—but we see the ablest physicians cure diseasesby regimen, as well as by every other kind of remedies.
Now, we must admit, unlesswe are ignorant, or deficient in underst and ing, that the employment of regimen, is adependent on art. Nothing is useless in medicine in the h and s of good physicians—wesee various remedies, and cures in many instances, under the operation of nature, aswell as through that of human industry; and such as have been restored without theaid of a physician, can in no respect attribute their recovery to chance, with any justfoundation.
Chance, when we come to examine the phrase, means absolutely nothing. Every eventhas a certain cause, which is, itself, the effect of some preceding one. Chance,therefore, cannot be said to have existence. It is a term employed by ignorance forwhat it does not comprehend. But medicine is, and always will be, seen and demonstrated in its effects, induced by causes, which necessarily are incapable of producing any others,— and this is our answer to those who attribute their recovery tochance, rather than to the art of medicine.
As to those who allege the number of deaths under the employment of medicine, Iwonder what reason so evident can be given, that complaint should be made of theignorance of the physician, rather than of the irregularity of the patient; as if it waspossible for the former, alone, to practice incorrectly, and impossible for the latter, tocounteract his directions!
It is much more credible, that the latter is the case. In fact,when an able physician undertakes a patient, and is sound in mind and body—is henot qualified to reason on the present state of the patient, and to compare his diseasewith such as he had previously seen, either the same, or approaching thereto, and which he has cured by the admission of the patient himself?
He receives his directions under present pain, and future dread. He thinks only of his disorder, and is weakened by want of food. Hedesires what is agreeable, rather than what may cure him;—not that he is desirous of dying, but that he detests physic. In such a case, which is most probable? That thepatient duly obeys his physician, in all his directions, or, that the latter, with thequalities above stated, should practice erroneously?
Is it not more likely that thephysician performs his duty correctly, and that the patient incapable sometimes of paying obedience does disobey, and falls a victim to his own folly? Those whoincorrectly judge of events, accuse the innocent, and exculpate the guilty. Others there are who condemn medicine, under the pretext that physicians neverundertake the care of those, who are already overpowered by disease. The y say, thathe cheerfully attends on such as would recover without him—but not a step will hetake in behalf of those who are most in need of his assistance.
If there was an art of medicine, they moreover say, it ought to cure these as well as the former. Those whospeak thus, would have more reason to complain of a physician who would not treatthem as fools, than they have, to accuse medicine in such manner.
He who requires of an artist, what belongs not to his art, or what is beyond its power, is more knave thanfool. We can effect every thing that is capable of being accomplished through themeans of Nature, or of the instruments of our pr of ession; but we possess no more. When the disease is more powerful than any of these means, it cannot be expectedthat medicine can overcome it.
Thus, we have many caustics in medicine, of variouspowers, of which fire is the most so. We may reasonably doubt, in such cases asrequire the use of caustics, whether the highest degree of evil in such case, would notresist the fire, whilst we have no doubt of its utility in an inferior grade. Now, in suchcases which fire cannot reach, nothing can be expected of an art that has no powerstronger than fire.
It is the same with all the instruments of medicine, and I apprehend,therefore, that when employed in extreme cases without advantage, the fault is in theviolence of the disease and not in the art. Some there are who reproach us for avoiding such as are already worn down bydisease: this is like requiring of any art, to do that which does not belong to it. Nominal physicians will, it is true, undertake this from a desire of admiration; butthey are looked on as ridiculous by real ones.
Those who are masters of theirpr of ession, care neither for the praise nor repro of of such people—they esteem thoseonly who know how to discriminate, and discern when and wherein the operations of art are perfect or imperfect, and whether the imperfection arises from the workman orhis subject. As to medicine, we have already shown what it is, and now proceed topoint out how it is to be judged of.
All who are acquainted with it, will admit that there are two classes of diseases: one,affecting the external parts, and few in number; the other is in vast amount and attacksthe parts that are internal and concealed, wherein they manifestly differ from theformer. Online Library of Liberty: The Writings of Hippocrates and Galen comprehended, but because they are readily discovered, at least by those who arequalified to seek for them, by industry and natural attainments.
Our art abounds inresources for visible diseases,—nor are they less abundant for those of a hiddencharacter, or which attack the cavities or bones. The human body has many cavities:thus, two exist for the reception and discharge of food, with many others, known tothose who have studied the subject. All those fleshy, rounded parts, called muscles,are cavernous; all parts, in fact, in which there is defect of continuity, are cavities,whether covered by flesh or skin,— and they are filled with air spiritus in health, butin disease with unhealthy humours.
Such fleshy parts are seen in the arms, the thighs, and legs. Even those parts that are not fleshy, have a similar structure. The re are, moreover, nerves and vessels innumerable,passing to the bones;— and ligaments and cartilages belonging to the joints, whereinthe bones move, and which are moistened by a glairy fluid synovial emitted fromsmall cavities, which sometimes discharge much sanious matter when they areopened, accompanied with extreme pain.
Now, none of all these parts are apparent toour sight,— and hence the above division of diseases into concealed and apparent. Itmust not, however, be supposed, that those thus latent are beyond the reach of medicine. The possibility of this depends very much, nevertheless, on the accuracy of the report by the patient of his complaint, and the tact of the physician in hisinterrogatories.
Sometimes this seems to be attained as by intuition, although moretime and labour are required than in the case of external diseases. The evilexperienced by the sick from the delay of making known their disease, ought not to beattributed to medicine, but to the patient, or to the actual violence of the complaint.
The physician who cannot by sight detect it, nor by the imperfect statement of thepatient, is obliged to recur to reasoning; for it is certain, that when describing theirinternal complaints, they speak more from opinion than from any certain knowledge. Were they possessed of this, they would not require the aid of the physician, since thesame science which enabled them to know their disease, would equally teach them theappropriate means of cure.
Medicine requires only to know the disease, in order toproceed to its cure; yet, with prudence devoid of temerity, and depending more onpatient attention than on violent efforts. It is requisite also, that the disease be curable, and that time be allowed for the purpose.
If then the disease is known, and is found tobe too powerful, either from its nature or from delay of calling in medical aid, thepatient will die; for it rarely happens that it is too powerful, if soon attended to. Disease is rarely victorious, except from being permitted to gain too great advance,which arises from its concealed character, or from delayed assistance.
It is, therefore,in my opinion, more correct to praise the art of medicine for the cure of suchconcealed diseases, than for undertaking, what it is impossible it can perform. Is thereno parallel to be found in the other hitherto known arts?
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