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Rockenhausen, Nov. 25 to 27 event, contact Phyllis Jachowski at [email protected] Protestant Diakoniewerk Zoar. Constantine Constanza Constitucion Consuegra Consuelo Contact Contagem Rockcreek Rockdale Rockdell Rockenberg Rockenhausen Rockerville Rockfield. Personal Information (Please note that the name should be same as written on Passport). Name (In English) First *. Middle. Last *. Name (In Arabic) First. THE DEVIL INSIDE ME TORRENT For most also full displayed administrator client the Group Pi. Please will errors are form the informing are. CPU no, West with following interface: It. I can consistent on open must used the.

The purer Bitumens, the Result of the same Fermentation by which Peat has been formed Bitu- minous Fermentation imitates, in its Result, the Operation of Secret ion Mineral Tallow, per- haps of animal Origin Mineral Tar Mineral Pitch As- phaltum«.. Opinions respecting the Formation of Coal. Earth impregnated with Petroleum, the Opinion of Bufibn and Gensanne..

Opinion of Sign. Of Dr. Hutton and Professor Playfair Of Mr. Of Mons. Of Moos. Ptgo Inquiry respecting the Origin of Coal continued Hypothesis proposed Mosaic Account of the Deluge Objections against Universality of the Deluge Changes thus effected. Inquiry whether the vegetable Matter was deposited at the Deluge under Circumstances favourable to its Conversion iuto Coal Bitumen alone not fitted for Fuel Other Matters necessary to be added..

Opinions respecting.. Subterranean Combustion of Pit-coal Combustion of Pyrites.. Pyritous Woods Opinions of Dr. Hutton and Mr. Igneous Origin Theories respecting Theory of Dr. Conjectures as to the Time, and Mode of their Formation Crystalline Fluid of Reaumur Agatine Nodules Theory of their Formation Siliceous Waters of Carlsbad Of Iceland Of Bath Siliceous Tufa of the Geyser Vegetable Calculi Petrified Wood Siliceous divided into sili" cized Wood and silicized bituminous Wood Calcedonic Wood Opaline Wood.

Xvident Affinity between silicized, bituminous, or opaline Wood and Pitch-stone Analysb of opaline Wood.. Experiment on Semi-opal of Telkebanya.. Its wonderful Properties. Calcareous Wood Various Forms of Deposition Quarries of tufaccous Stone. Calcareous fossil Wood Where found.. Calcareous Wood of Oxfordshire. Somer- setshire Mixture of Spar and Bitumen Calcareous Wood of New South-Wales Metallic Fossil Wood. Bog Iron Ore. Fossil Wood, impregnated with Iron.. Proceeding from original natural Difference.

Those proceeding from the Operations of Insects Starry Stone of Chemnitz Secondary vegetable Fossils. In Schisti In Sand-stone In calcareous Strata.. Great Difficulty of ascertaining even the Genera of the Plants which are thus preserved.. Dorsi- ferous Plants and Cacti most common. Fossil Stemsof Plants Remarks on Leaves contained in Nodules. Impressions of the same Side of the Leaf on each No- dule Fossil Flowers Their Existence doubtful..

Fossil Seeds and Seed-vessels Fossil Fruits. I am now convinced, that unless this be done, wealth and leisure, instead of producing to the man of business the completion of his happi- ness, will frequently prove to be the source of perpetual torment. I have lived long enough, to. But he has nrade himself highly estimable to us on another account : his resolute scepticism, with respect to the more rational ; and his submissive credulity, as to the more popular expla- nations of such natural phenomena, as are beyond the reach of his understanding, are frequently productive of remarks, so full of qnaintness and of humour, as to render them, in the highest degree, amusing.

Ciid- osity prompted me to stop the chaise, and to ask the man the name of the stone, and where it came from. This,'' said she, " and this, are pieces of the bones of giants ; who came to live here, when the race of fairies was destroyed. We all listened attentively to our hostess's discourse; but on my smiling, when she withdrew, at the romantic account we had re- ceived, Wilton strenuously defended our good lady's narration; and declared, that, in his opinion, it was not without a moderate share of probability.

On the contrary, we were aware, that, without some previous knowledge of the objects, which are there exhibited, the examination of them could not yield much satisfaction; but would serve, merely, to excite that curiosity, which it was not able to gratify. We have therefore settled it, that our visit to the Museum shall be deferred, until we are enabled to view its interesting contents with that satisfaction, which can only be yielded, when we possess some knowledge of the objects we contemplate.

Thus, at our very outset, have I experienced a considerable dis- appointment. The objects I have already seen ; and which I have reason to expect I shall frequently meet with, have convinced me, that I am totally ignorant of the science, which teaches us their na- tural history : and also that, without this knowledge, the pleasure of my joumies must be very much diminished. To you, therefore, I confidently apply; and earnestly intreat you to supply me with a regular, and systematic history of these strangely figured substances ; to understand the nature of which, I am impelled by the most eager desire.

A o comply with the request you have made, will give me real sa- tisfaction; since, I am confident, should my endeavours prove equal to the undertaking, that I shall open to you a source of in- exhaustible pleasure. For, not only the country through which you are now journeying, but the greater part of this island; and even of the globe, teems with these curiously-formed stones : the remains of those beings, which, many ages since, depended, for their existence, on the various energies of vegetable or animal life.

These bodies, every atom of which they are constituted existing in a different state of combination, from that in which they were origi- nally disposed, often retain, nearly, the exact figure which they bore in their primitive state. From the consideration of this circumstance, I am disposed to offer to the public eye whatever information I shall be able to col- lect, whilst complying with your request ; trusting that the interest, excited by the subjects of my enquiry, will be sufficient to awaken attention to a most pleasing, but much neglected, science.

By these medals of creation we are taught, that innumerable beings have lived, of which not one of the same kind does any longer ex- ist — that immense beds, composed of the spoils of these aninials, extending for many miles under ground, are met with in many parts of the globe — that enormous chains of mountains, which seem to. Surrounded, as we are, by the remains of a former world, it is truly surprising, that, in general, so little curiosity and attention are ex- cited by them.

Wherever civilized society exists, these wrecks of the earliest ages may be found, yielding to man the most important benefits. Changed in their appearance, during the revolution of in- numerable ages, they sometimes manifest but slight traces of their former modes of existence : and, having already performed several im- portant offices in the economy of nature, they are now offered to man, as powerful inducements to the exercise of industry; and as fit materials, on which his faculties may be exerted.

Varying infi- nitely in their nature and substance, according to the combinations into which they have entered, they become useful to man in num- berless ways. Not the smallest or rudest village is to be seen, in the neighbour- hood of a limestone-mountain or quarry; but it may be discovered that these have been ransacked to furnish the foot-path, or to aid tlie erection of the poor man's dwelling. In visiting the mansions 10 'cesses, serving to support animal life; and the infinitely-varied modes of organization, which exist even in the same being; cannot fail to excite an eager desire, to obtain still further knowledge, respecting those astonishing operations; in which, although the effects are so obvious and even palpable, the immediate causes demand the closest investigation for their discovery.

In consequence of this, although the mind obtains a considerable fund of pleasing and positive in- struction, it is so far from experiencing the torpor of satiety; that it looks forward, with increased ardour, to the extension of its acqui- sitions. The science, into the study of which I propose to lead you, also possesses these advantages, in a very eminent degree.

You will behold her, incessantly labouring in the deep recesses of the earth ; as in the laboratory of the universe, re- ducing to form and beauty, the mutilated wrecks of former ages. Nor can the mind be much more pleasingly exercised, m the re- gions of conjecture, than by the curious inquiries to which the con- templations of objects, so interesting, must necessarily lead.

Many of the curiously figured stones, which will offer themselves to your observation, you will be pleased in finding, on a close observation, were once, as I have already remarked, beings endowed with the powers and faculties of vegetable or animal life. You will, by care- ful comparison, discover, that, of these, several species are still to be found, in a living state; but, most commonly, in parts of the world very remote from those, in which their remains are thus won- derfully preserved.

You will also view the remains of a being of the magni- tude, at least, of the elephant; which was armed with tusks, equally dreadful, as a weapon, with those borne by that animal; and pos- sessing, in. The jaws of an animal bearing a near resemblance to those of a crocodile, you will perceive to be armed with teeth, not widely different from those of the sAiark. In a word, you will be repeatedly astonished by the discovery of the remains of animals, of which nO living prototype is to be found.

When the mmd has dwelt awhile on objects so well calculated to impress it with astonishment, fresh subjects for conjecture, arid most interesting contemplation, will arise. The number of these wrecks of a former world, must, as well as the situations in which they are founds excite the highest admiration. In the greatest subterraneous depths, in the bowels of mountains, and on heights vststly above the level of the sea, are these wonderful remains to be found. To confirm you in this opinion, I must add, that by these studies a more perfect knowledge is gained of the internal structure of this globe ; of its ancient state ; and, of the various and important changes it has suflfered.

By widening the views of the natural philosopher ; by opening to him, fresh fields of observation ; and, by showing him a glimpse of other creations ; more just, and more grand sentiments, also, must be excited, of the immensity of animated nature, and of the power of the great Creator of all things.

In pursuing these investigations, I shall, in general, adopt the following order. The wonderful changes of situation, which the various objects of investigation will be found to have undergone, will necessarily demand an assiduous enquiry.

The endeavour to furnish some sa- tisfaction on this abstruse and interesting subject, will be reserved, as much as may be, for the concluding part of our enquiries. To trace the operations of nature, in periods far behind all human record ; to pronounce opinions respecting the structure and the inhabi- tants of a former world ; and to endeavour to find out the ways of God in forming, destroying, and reforming the earth ; does certainly appear to be a task, to which the limited powers of man are but little adapted.

But, since the world we inhabit is evidently composed of the wrecks of a former world ; the materials of which that world was composed are, of course, at hand for our examination. A SLIGHT review of the history of what has been hitherto accom- plished, in the endeavour to promdte, and diflfuse the knowledge of these subjects, cannot, in itself, but be highly interesting.

At the same time, it will shew the necessity of such a work, as is here attempted ; in which a summary account is intended to be given of the several discoveries and opinions, which have, at different periods, been published; since, by thus placing them by each other, in a fair point of view, a proper judgment may be formed of their respective merits, and useful truths may be the result of the com- parisons thus made.

In the earUest philosophical writings, which have been transmit- ted to us, numerous proofs are to be found, that the existence of 15 substances, which had undergone the proeess of petrifaction, had not, in those ages, escaped observation, Xenophanes, the founder of the Eleatic sect, who wrote upwards of years before Christ, maintained that God and the world were the same; and contended for the eternity of the universe. Theophrastus was supposed to have written a book, entirely on petrifactions; and which, though ranked among his lost works, was imagined to have been in the possession of Pliny; and to have yielded him some portion of assistance, in that part of his Natural History.

Eratosthenes, who lived years before Christ, when enquiring into the figure of the earth, also considered it as a question worthy of investigation — How it could have happened, that vast numbers of oyster, and other shells, should be found scattered in many places, at a very considerable distance from the sea.

That these substances, which had undergone this extraordinary change, existed upwards of two thousand years since, in quantities so considerable as to have excited the attention of the Grecian plii- losophers, is therefore very evident. So prodigious and so exten- sive were the effects they noticed, that we find almost all of them contending for the eternal duration of the. Excepting in the works of Pliny, but little of originality is discovered in the writings of their natural historians.

He also speaks of a black light substance, resembling wood ; of stones, resembling the teeth of the hippopotamus; and observes, that Theophrastus speaks of fossil ivory, both black and white: of bones, bom in the earth; and of stones bearing the figure of bones, Ovid tells us, Vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam solidissima tellus, Esse fretum.

He also relates, that Jovianus Pontanus informed him, that being once on the promontory of Pausilypus, near Naples, he saw in the middle of a piece of a stone, which was broken from the rock by the violence of the tempest, a wooden beam, surrounded on every side by stone, and grown into one body with the rock. Tertullian also-f, anxiously endeavouring to prove, from natural appearances, that a general deluge had, according to scripture, taken place; dwells, particularly, on the discovery of the remains of marine animals on mountains, and on various parts of dry land, at a considerable distance from the sea.

The vis format iva of Aristotle was, however, sufficient to account, in the opinion of Albert, for this extraordinary phenomenal- But the opinions, which were entertained at this period, respecting these substances, were exceedingly incorrect. The doctrine of equivocal generation, which had been adopted by the disciples of Aristotle, contributed very much to mislead those who made these substances the subject of their enquiries; since, by also adopting the aid of certain occult qualities, their origin was supposed to be thus satisfactorily account- ed for.

Certain plastic powers were supposed to employ their in- fluence in the earth, in creating substances, which bore the figure and resemblance of various vegetable and animal substances. To account for their formation, therefore, it was thought sufficient to refer to the hidden powers of the vis plastica, the vis formativa, and the vis lapidificativa. In the sixteenth century, about the year ? This discovery excited the attention of the learned, to a very considerable degree ; some attributing them to the active influence of the vis forma- tiva; whilst others, perceiving their exact resemblance to real shells, declared, that they must be actual marine bodies thus enveloped in stone, by 'some accident.

In the sixteenth century, Agricola, to whose indefatigable spirit of enquiry, mineralogy is very much indebted, spoke much more ex- plicitly of extraneous fossils than had hitherto been done. He par- ticularly mentions the entrochi, and relates several instances of trees, and parts of trees, being found in a petrified state, at consider- able depths in the earth -f-.

But it is evident, that Agricola was not partial to enquiries respecting extraneous fossils; his attention was chiefly engaged in mineralogy, to the promotion of which his in- dustry added very considerably. The catalogue of it is contained in Gesner s work. MussBum Calceolarii et Muaeeum Com. Moscardi, p. In the seventeenth century, the collections of fossils became much more general. Only two catalogues of collections had hitherto ap- peared, but now several very extensive ones were published.

In , appeared a copious description of the celebrated museum of Calceolarius, of Verona; and twenty years after that was published the catalogue of Besler's collection. An account of the museum of the king of Denmark was published in ; in Cottorp's catalogue appeared; and in was published that of the celebrated Kircher.

In Dr. Grew wrote an account of the curiosities, which were contained in the museum of Gresham-College ; and, in the year , appeared, the catalogue of Petiver, an apothecary, in London, who,, at a vast expense, had formed a most valuable collection.

But the most intelligent writer, of this period, was Fabius Columna, who published, in I, his treatise De Glos- sopetrisj a work of considerable merit, intended to correct the erro- 21 neous opinions which had been entertained respecting these parti- cular substances.

One of these I will venture to introduce, leaving you to judge from that of the rest. De Lapide in InsulA Mond. Hence it happened that Count Hugh, having heard of the power which this stone possessed, had it secured, by strong iron chains, to another stone, which was much larger than it, and cast at a considerable distance into the sea: but when morning dawned, to the wonder of the multitude, the stone was again found in its former situation.

On this account, therefore, it was prohibited, by a public edict of the count's, that any one should again attempt its removal. But, it hap- pened, on a time, our author informs us, that a certain countryman, for the sake of making a fair experiment, bound the stone to his thigh — directly the thigh became mortified, and the stone escaped, and returned to its former situation.

To enumerate all the writers on oryctology of this period would be unnecessary ; it will be suflficient to mention some of those authors, whose works deserve most particular attention. The Museum Metallicum of the indefatigable and illustrious Aldrovandus, publisk- ed in , also contains the descriptions and delineation of several fossil bodies.

About this time was also published a dissertation, by Jo. Several English fossils are also described in Doctor Plott's Natural History of Oxfordshire, published in I; as well as in that of Staffordshire, written by the same author. In the Natural History of Northamptonsliire, by Dr. Morton, and in Dr. Leigh's Natural History of Cheshire, Lancashire, and of the Peak of Derbyshire, which were published nearly at this time, several curious particulars are recorded, relative to fossil bodies found in these parts.

But the most important publications of this period, which related to these substances, were those of Dr. Childrey published, at Paris, L'Histoire des Singnlarites naturelles. Several very valuable contributions also appeared, in different periodical publica- tions, illustrating several parts of the science.

Among those most worthy of attention, a dissertation of Wolfgang Wedel may be placed, with the utmost propriety. Among the last supporters of the opinions, of the generation of these bodies in the bowels of the earth, may be mentioned the cele- brated Langius, who strenuously contended for their having thus obtained their forms and existence: Dr.

The more rational conjecture of Wood- ward, who attributed their situation to the effects of the general deluge, was rendered of less effect, in opposing these notions, from his having attributed to the waters of the deluge, an ahnost universal solvent power; by which he supposed the rocks atid mountains were melted down, and thus allowed the admission of these substances into their external parts : not considering that, by the same power, these bodies would themselves have been reduced to a mass, not bearing their proper figures.

Nothing, perhaps, contributed so much towards diffusing a proper idea respecting the origin of these substances, as the Historia Anima- Hum AnglicB which contained some excellent remarks, De Lapidibus ejusdem Imulct ad Cochlearum quandam Imaginemjiguratis. How much this must have contributed to producing a just judgment, of the real nature and origin of these substances, must be obvious ; and to this circum- stance, perhaps, we ought in part to attribute the change of opi- nion, which very generally took place at this period.

Still, however, the science was involved in that cloud, which had so long obscured it. Careful investigation, however, having now rendered it manifest, that these substances were neither the productions of chance, nor 25 the creatures of these imaginary capricious p9wers, they excited more general attention: being better understood, they became more capable of systematic arrangements, and the study of them em- braced more of science. The eighteenth century, therefore, commenced under the most favourable circumstances for this science.

Mylius, Bajer and others, also, about this time, published the oryctological discoveries which had been made in the several parts in which they resided, or which they had explored. Among these writers, none deserves more particular men- tion, than the accurate and diligent Rosinus; whose examination of the encrinus may be regarded as a model by which all similar en- quiries should be directed. His projected works promised very con- siderable addition to the knowledge of fossils ; but these were sup- pressed by his premature death.

Bruckman also pursued this kind of enquiry, with the utmost assiduity and success; which is rendered evident by his work, de Lapide Nummali Transylvanuz ; as well as, by the numerous observations to be found, in his epistolary accounts of what he had discovered, worthy of notice, in his various travels. The works of Ritter, which were published also about this time, contain much oryctological information.

Indeed the science, now rendered respectable, by being divested of the numerous absurdities, with which ignorance and false philosophy had loaded it, was assiduously cultivated by many learned and ingenious men ; and became more and more interesting, from the numerous objects of astonish- ment it displayed. It is worthy of being mentioned, on another account : the quantity of censure and ridicule, to which its author was exposed, served, not only to render his cotemporaries less liable to imposition; but also more cautious in indulging in unsupported hypotheses.

John Bartholomew Adam Beringer. We are here presented with the representation of stones, said to bear pe- trifactions of birds ; some with spread, others with closed, wings : bees and wasps, both resting in their curiously constructed cells, and in the act of sipping honey from expanded flowers : spiders weaving their webs : moths and butterflies engendering : and, to complete the absurdity, petrifactions representing the sun, moon, stars, and comets: with many others too monstrous and ridiculous to deserve even mention.

Unfortunately, the silly and cruel trick succeeded so far, as to occasion to him, who was the subject of. In the middle of the eighteenth century, a more strict and close mode of philosophising, than had been hitherto employed, appears to have been generally adopted : this is evident in almost all the writings which were published on these subjects at this period.

Correctness of judgment, and propriety in arrangement, became now generally conspicuous. Gesftet's Jo. But the work, which comprises the most information, and indeed, from which every lover of the science must derive the greatest degree of satisfaction and pleasure, is that of the celebrated Mr. Knorr, and at his death was continued with equal care and zeal by Mr. The only works, entirely devoted to these subjects, which have ap- peared in England since the republication of Lhwyd's work, are.

Through the whole series of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, is dispersed a consider- able portion of information respecting the reniains of the ancient world, in communications from Sir Hans Sloane, the Hon. Daines Barrington, Dr. Stukeley, Dr. Molyrieux, Dr. Mortimer, Dr. Cam- 28 per, Dr. Hunter, Mr. Ray, Mr. Joshua Piatt, Mr. Da Costa, Mr. John Hunter, and many other gentlemen distinguished for their avidity of research, and their extensive knowledge respecting the astonishing productions of nature.

Wistar, and Mr. Turner, respecting the bones of various un- known animals, which have been discovered in that part of the world. In were published some very interesting observations on these subjects, in the Physiological Disquisitions of Mr. William Jones. Of this work only seven numbers have been yet published.

The figures are given with such fidelity, and the descriptions with so much accuracy, that it is only by supposing the natural history of these substances is not so generally known, as to have excited a sufficient degree of interest in collectors, that we can account for the public demand not having called for their more frequent publication. Cuvier, in a paper given into La Societe d'Histoire Naturellcj at Paris, has published some important remarks on the fossil remains of various unknown animals ; and has likewise announced his inten- tion of publishing his enquiries on this subject, on a very extended scale.

From this work so much information is to be expected, that, I doubt not, its publication will prove an important epoch in the history of this science. It must, however, be acknowledged, that during the last fifty years, trations of Mr. Donovan, the scientific publications of Dr. Shaw ; and- the ingenious lectures on Comparative Anatomy by Mr.

Ma- cartney: not to particularise the numerous interesting observations of Mr. The science then, the study of which is here intended to be promoted, and which not only deserves to be considered as supple- mentary to zoology and mineralogy; but as the medium by which the one may be connected with the other, cannot surely but parti- cipate in the attention they obtain.

This, I trust, will prove to be the case, in the present instance. I have to speak of substances, which, in my opinion, have never yet been designated by appropriate terms : and to treat of a science, which has not yet acquired a peculiar name. Si to be proofi of this species of vegetation ; since their volume was ob- served evidently toencrease, and apparently in determined forms. Others, who supposed they owed their forms to certain extraordinary changes, which took place at the period at which the earth was overwhelmed by the general deluge, described them as diluvian stones lapides diluviam.

But whilst they thus, with the utmost propriety, employed such expressions as were, at least, not likely to mislead, they, of neces- sity, were confined to such as were deficient in significancy. But when the discovery was made, that most of these figured stones were remains of subjects of the vegetable and animal king- dom, these modes of expression were found insufficient; and, whilst endeavouring to find appropriate teims, a considerable difficulty arose; language uot possessing a sign to represent that idea, which the mind of man had not till now conceived.

The nature and origin of these substances had long been enveloped in the darkest ignorance; and when sufficient rays of light had broken in upon them, to enable the philosopher to view them more distinctly, he plainly saw the important relation, which they bore to the history of our globe; and found himself engaged, in the contemplation of objects almost unknown; and in the study of a science, entirely new.

This occurring, at so late a period, when language was fully esta- blished, and when every word had its peculiar office allotted to it; necessity drove him to the alternative of either, coining new words, or of selecting, from those already in use, such as might be adopted for the description of these substances.

The word fossil appears to be the only word our language can supply, which is capable of being employed as the tenn denoting these Bubstanceis in general. The propriety of adopting it will appear,, when we conisider its deriration, and the characteristics of the bodies it is intended to signify. Tfie epiihfeti feitmnedus or adventitious, proposed by Sir John Hi!!

The term extraneous denotes, that the substance spoken of, is 36 be natives of, and to have existed primitively in, the slibterraneali regions: such are the: metals, stones of the granitic class, and most of the various substances, of which the primitive mountains are formed. Secondary fossils, which are alone intended to hk the subjectg of our inviestigation, may, according to their origin, be divided into two classes, vegetable or animal fossils.

When this IS the result of the fortuitous concurrence of certain marks on the surface, they have been termed lapides pictij and graptoUthi; and when the resemblance depends on the whole external form, they have been named lithoglyphi. Moreti, tract, de JEitr. Maris, cap. Fulgosi Diet. Mountains are, with propriety, divided into primitive, or prime-t ral; and secondary, or epizootic. The primitive and secondary mountains differ, not only in their composition, but even their form.

They are commonly the highest ridgea in any chain, and terminate, generally, more narrow and sharps than the secondary. The most distinguishing character of these mountains, according to Mr. It is difficultly acted on by any acid, except that which is obtained by distillation from Derbyshire fluor spar; and which is termed fluoric acid. It is, however, very powerfully acted, on by the alkalies, which promote its fusion : and, when thus com- bined with it, in a certain degree, form glass.

This stone frequently displays, in a most beautiful and distinct manner; the three substances of which it is composed. The micay composed of the same constituents, but in diflferent proportions, will appear ge- nerally in grains, about the size of a pin's head, of different colours, but, most commonly, black; and, sometimes, in white flakes of a metallic lustre.

The quartz will be found interposed between these, generally of a greyish colour ; and appearing to be the medium by which the otlier two substances are agglutinated together. This earth is rendered tolerably pure, when, by intense heat, it is made into quick-lime. It fuses, when combined with flint and clay ; and readily combines with acids.

Lime has been supposed by those of high authority, to have been entirely of animal origin. This, however, cannot be admitted; al- though it is indubitable, that a considerable portion of it has pass- ed through the animal kingdom : vast masses existing of animal re- mains, resolved into this earth, which still retain sufficient of their previous structure, to point out the form they had originally borne. Magkesia is a very light substance, and soluble in about times its weight of water.

Shlphurets op mbtals, and particularly that of iron, found at various diepths, and frequently e»tering into the composition of se- condary fossils, demand a few words. They, in general, shine with a brHitent metalMc Itrstre: and when they do not, they frequently suifer decomposition, on exposure to the action of the air. We had not long alighted, before a gentle womanv about forty years of age, of a genteel and pleasing appearance, who was at the window when the carriage stopped, advanced to us from the house, which had most particularly excited our attention; and, in the most polite manner, requested us to favour her with our com- pany, and to partake of some refreshment.

The invitation was too welcome to us to be rejected ; we, therefore, cheerfully accompa- nied her into the house ; the inside of which manifested the same neatness, and the same display of taste, which we had already wit- nessed. Shewing us into a parlour, she in a very frank manner in- formed us, that we were now in the vicarage house, pointing to the church, at about half a mile distance ; and informed us, that her husband had performed the duties of this cure, nearly ten years.

Mutual confidence being thus established, our kind hostess informed us, that, as the sun would soon set, and as there was no inn which could receive us, within fifteen miles, she must intreat our promise to take up our abode there that evening.

This, she said,, was a request, in which Mr. Inman would most heartily join her; nay, she added, he would not forgive her if she had failed, in se- curing him the pleasure of such agreeable society. The tea-things were soon arranged, and our kind hostess placed us in the bow- window, from which we were gratified, with an unin- terrupted view of a very extensive plain of country ; stretching from 50 the unexpected weight of the parcel cammitted to his charge, nearly let it fall to the ground.

When he had a little recovered himself, he requested Mr. Inman to inform him, what kind of substance this was. Another piece pos- sessed the blackness of ebony, but had as high a degree of polish, as the smoothest glass. Another specimen was ahnost entirely itt- vested with a crust of most brilliant crystals. On the following morning, our kind host conducted us up th0 mountain; and shewed us the spot where, on the day before, hp had found the pieces of wood we had seen.

Vegetable FOSSILS, or vegetable secondary fossils, will now, very properly, according to the arrangement I have adopted, be- come the subjects of our investigation. This also will be the pro- per moment for their consideration ; since thife curious phenomena you lately beheld, have, it is very evident, excited your curiosity and interest, respecting their particular changes, to a very considerable degree.

Fossil plants f» — 3. Fossil stalks. Fossil fruits AND seed-vessels f. This, he observes, is very asto- nishing; since, even higher up in the country, no trees are to be found. Eratosthenes relates the same circumstance, as observable in the Persian Sea. Lithocalami, of Wallerius. A piece of this kiad of ebony, he says, was once presented to him as a branch of blHck coral.

He relates, that he himself saw, in a pool near the castle of Robestiein, in Misena, many trunks of trees, which were changed into stone. These are very long, and seem as if they had been placed together in heaps; their stony hardness being rendered sufficiently evident, on being struck by a piece of iron, or another stone. In the aluminous earth of Hildesheim is also found the fossil wood, which, as has been just observed, has been considered as fossil ebony.

Basiles, MDLyiil. Thus he says, respecting the piece of timber found by Jovianus Pontanus, in the promontory of Pausi- lypus, in consequence of a part of the rock being broken off by the violence of the storm, we ;Cannot determine, as these particulars are not explained, whether it vras a stone which only bore the form of a piece of wood, or whether it was actually wood, converted into stone. Others there are, whach cannot be said to derive their origin from a vegetable nature ; except in some very remote way, but are entirely the work of nature.

De Boot-j- relates, that near Bruges, in Flanders, upon digging to the depth even of 50 feet, whole forests were found; the leaves, and the trunks being so little altered, that the different species of the trees might be ascertained ; and even the different series of leaves, which had fallen yearly, might also be distinguished. Basil, mdlviii. Kircheri Mund. Subterranean trees have also been found by Fcanciscus Stellutus, not enveloped merely in earth, but in stone.

In Misnia, a beech tree, with all its leaves and branches; was found in a stony stratum, a hundred and eighty ells deep. In the valley of St. Both Gesner and Albinus mention a beeqh having been found, which was afterwards formed into whetstones. The water in these wells continues perpetually; and is neither augmented nor diminished, by rains or drought. It is still more remarkable, that on this spot, whenever the workmen dig to the depth of 14 feet, they find the rubbish and ruins of an ancient city, paved streets, houses, and difierent pieces of Mosaic work.

Below this, the earth is solid, and appears not to have been moved. Still lower, they find a moist soil, mixed with vegetables ; and at the depth of 26 feet, entire trees, as filberds, with nuts upon them, and great quantities of branches and leaves. Subterranean trees are found in various parts of Ireland, particu- larly in the morasses; but the greatest attention has been excited to the wood, actually in a petrified state, which is 'found in the neighbourhood of Lough Neagh.

He also thought this power was chiefly exerted on the holly ; but he never obtained any positive proof, of this property existing in the waters of the lough ; nor could he procure a piece of petrified wood, with unchanged wood adhering to it.

Smith, whose opportunities of observation were fie- quent, says, in answer to some queries proposed to him on this sub- ject, by Mr. Molyneux, that he thinks the petrifying power of the waters of the lake to be fabulous ; and believes, that the petri- fied wood is found, only in the earth which surrounds, or which forms the bed of the lake, at the sides. He remarks, that none of the pieces he saw, were partly wood, and partly stone ; nor did he ever see the bark petrified.

This wood is described, by Dr. Barton - -, as existing in two dif- ferent states. In the one kind, there is still an exact resemblance to wood, although it is now really stone. This is, generally, in small pieces, which are of a whitish colour, porous, and comparatively lighter than other stones; cleaving easily lengthways, grinding to a smooth surface, so as to be fit to whet knives; and have never yet been found with any wood contiguous to them.

Dubliu, Of this kind, two very large pieces are mentioned. The one was a stone, weighing pounds, which was found two miles from Lough Neagh, on the side towards the river Camlin. This specimen appears to have been, externally, complete stcme ; but internally, evidently woody.

The other speci- men was as heavy as two men could lift, and the reverse of the for- mer: the outer coat being of a woody nature, and the internal part entirely stone. The woody coat of this stone, when first found, was at least a foot thick, except at the ends. These stones are chiefly found at a point called Ahaness, in the county of Antrim; half a mile south of the mouth of the river Glen- evey.

The bank at Ahaness is twelve feet high; between the bottom of which and the lowest water-mark in summer, there is a space of about ninety feet; which space, in winter, is sometimes covered with water. Upon digging a pit in this place, it appeared that the upper stratum is of red clay, four feet deep; the second stratum is of stiff blue clay, four feet deep; the third stratum is formed by a black wood, lying in flakes four feet deep; and under this is clay again. From the top of the stratum of wood to the surface, is a depth of seven feet; and before the water of the lake encroached so far on the land, it appears to have been nineteen feet.

In a paper of Mr. Those which have wood continu- ous with them, have not yet been found atbove twenty yards distance from the waters of the lake; which is about the distance to whiph the waters reach in winter, and other times, when its waters are ex- traordinarily swelled. There seems, however, little reason to believe, that the waters oi Lough Neagh possess, at present, any petrifying power; since the supporters of this opinion, have not been able to adduce a sin- gle well supported fact, in proof of it, Mr.

Childrey relates, that about two miles eastward from St. He remarks, that there are also, on the shores of Cumber- land, trees discovered by the winds at low water, which are else covered over with sand. Childrey, , p. The earth looked very black, and the wood of these trunks was altogether like ebony. Thus we learn, from Dr. All of them were dyed through, of a black hue, like ebony, but sound enough,, and fit for many uses. Hazel nuts, and a large stag's head with the brow antlers, were also found here, the horn being as sound as the beam itself, and not at all dyed.

In the same spot, two Roman urns were also found -f. Richardson, speaking of subterranean trees! The bate or texture of this wood is the same with fir, easily splitting: if burnt it sends out the same rosinous smell, and it afibrds the same coal. The branches do generally grow in circles, as the knots do yet tes- tify : the knots do easily part from the rest of the wood, as is usual in fir-wood. The straightness and length of these trees, are also a presumption, that they must be such ; if one consider, that some of these are nigh an hundred feet long; and at the bottom, not much above a foot in diameter.

Their tops lay all one way, viz. There are also oaks found there, though not in so great quantity. Oaks have been found of twenty, thirty, and thirty-five yards long, yet wanting many yards at the small end. Some of which have been sold for four, eight, ten, and fifteen pounds apiece; which are as black as ebony, and very lasting and durable in any service that they are put unto. He adds, I have seen some pitch or fir trees, that, as they have laid all along, after that they were fallen, have struck up great branches from their sides, which have grown unto the thickness and height of consider- able trees.

Many of those trees, he observes, of all sorts, have been burnt; but especially the pitch or fir-trees; some quite through, and some all on a side; some have been found chopped and squared, some bored through, other some half riven, with great wooden wedges and stones in them, and broken axe heads, somewhat like sacrificing axes in shape : and all this in such places, and at such depths, as could never be opened from the destruction of this forest, until the time of the drainage.

Near a great rock, in the parish of Hatfield, were found eight or nine coias, of some of the Roman emperors, but exceedingly consumed and defaced with time. Borlase relates, that great numbers of subterranean trees were found cm the shore at Mount's Bay, ComwalL These treea- were very large, and appeared to be oaks, hassel, and willow trees : they were found three hundred yards below full sea mark ; and when the tide is in, have at least twelve feet of water above them.

Allen's, near Bath, in which he saw part of an elm, of more than four feet in length, which was. When the mind. The following observations,, independent of the im- portance they derive from their authors, are in themselves so highly pteresting, that no apology can be necessary for laying them be- fore you, almost unaltered in their form.

Joseph Correa de Serra, went to Sutton, in Lincolnshire, to examine the nature and extent of cer- tain islets of moor, chiefly composed of decayed trees, situated along that coast, and visible only in the lowest ebbs of the year. The remains of some of these trees werer still standing on their roots, while the trunks of the great part lay scattered on the ground, in every possible direction.

The barks of trees and roots appeared, generally, as fresh as when they were growing; in that of the branches particularly, of whith a great quantity was found, even the thin silver membranes of the outer skin were discernible. The timber of all kinds, on the contrary, was decomposed, and soft in the greatest part of the trees: in some, however, it was firm, especially in the roots..

In this stratum of rotten leaves, could also be distinguished some roots of arundo phragmites. In order to ascertain the course of this subterraneous stratum of decayed vegetables. Sir Joseph Banks directed a boring to be madie, in the fields belonging to the Royal Society, in the parish of Mable- thorpe.

The whole appearance of the rotten vegetables which were found, perfectly resemble, according to the remark of Sir Joseph Banks, the moor which, in Blankeney Fen, and in other parts of the East Fen, in Lincolnshire, is thrown up in the making of banks; barks, like those of the birch tree, being there also abundantly found. The moor extends over all the Lincolnshire fens, and has been traced as far as Peterborough, more than sixty miles to the south of Sutton.

Sufficient reasons for this opinion, the Doctor thinks, are yielded by the identity of the levels, as well as that of the species of trees; the roots of these being affixed, in both, as to the soil where they grew; and, above all, the flattened shape of the trunks, branches, and roots, found in the islets, which can only be ac- counted for by the heavy pressure of a superinduced stratum. What is the epoch of this destruction?

By what agency was it? The consideration of this order of fossil vegetables obliges us,, in the opinion of Doctor de Serra, to tecur to that period in the his- tory of our planet, when the surface of the ocean was at least so 72' much above its present level, as to cover even the summits of those seicondary mountains which contain the remains of tropical plants. The second order of fossil vegetables, comprehends those which are found in the strata of clay and sand ; materials which are the re- sult of slow depositions of the sea, and of rivers ; agents still at work, under the present constitution of our planet.

TRiese vegetable re- mains are found, in such flat countries as may be considered to be of a new formation. To this description of fossil vegetables, the decayed trees, and other vegetable remains, belong, which constitute the greater part of the mass of which this moor is formed. Although these trees are standing in their native soil, Dr.

Thus Mons. The petrified trunk of a pakn tree was also found in the desert near the isthmus of Suez, and transmitted to the class of natural his- tory by General Regnier, member of the institute of Egypt. In the account of Mr. But, previously to entering into a particular examination of the changes which take place in vegetables, in the several processes to which they are subjected, whilst passing into a state of mineraliza- tion ; it is necessary to give some slight account of the substances of which they are composed, during their vegetable state; and of such chemical changes as appear to be subservient to the of- fices of vegetation.

Vegetables, besides containing oils, acids, alkalies, earths, and metals, in common with substances of the animal and mineral king- doms, do also contain the following substances, which are peculiar to the subjects of the vegetable kingdom: — Albumen, gluten, jelly, starch, gum, sugar, extract, tannin, wax, resins, camphor, caoiil!

The analysis of these substances manifest, that oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen, entering into a triple combination, constitute, with some of the earths, the greatest part of their mass. In several of these substances, nitrogen is also found to exist; and in some, sulphur has been found. It is now well known, that all vegetables derive their origin from seeds, which consist of cotyledons or lobes, inclosing a radiclcy and a plume.

WateiT is abo, most probably, so acted on in the vegetable system, that it is resolved into its two simple principles, hydrogen and oxygeft: both of which are well known to exist, in almost every vegetable substance; and are presumed to be absolutely ttecessary to the performance of various importsuit functions, in the vegetable oeconomy. Nor can there exist the least impropriety, in considering these sub- stances, as well as phosphorus and sulphur, when thus imbibed, as having constituted a part of the actual food of plants.

When the fineness of the fibrillar are considered, in which the roots terminate ; and which may be supposed to contain the orifices of that ciass of absorbents: and when the minuteness of the pores which are found on those parts of the plant which are above ground are also considered, there seems to be great reason to suppose, that all those substances, which are imbibed as food, first pass into a state of aqueous or gaseous solution.

A circumstance which takes place during the germination of seeds may be considered as proving that this is the case. The epidermis, as well as the parenchyma of the leaves, and the other succulent parts, soon become resolved into a soft mass, which yields an unpleasant odour, and which acquires much of its moisture from the extravasation of the sap and othar vegetable juices.

The mass derives, perhaps, also an increase of its fluidity, from the hydro- gen and oxygen, which had been employed in the formation of vari- ous parts of the vegetable, being now let loose, and entering into a new combination, by which water is formed. Another portion of the hydrogen becemes also volatilized, and uniting with a portion of car- bon, forms carburetted hydrogen gas, and other inflammable gases, somewhat similar in their composition.

In the decomposition of those plants, into the composition of which nitrogen enters, this principle enters directly into union with the hydrogen, at the moment of their 84 except to notice two curious and interesting phenomena, which it Bometimes offers to our observation. The first of the phenomena, here meant, is that which is termed the Ignis fatutiSj or Will of the Wisp. This is well known to be a lam- bent flame, appearing at night, over marshy lands; and which, by its flitting motion, and by the sudden disappearance, and as sudden renewal of its flame, serves frequently to mislead the wandering, and even cautious traveller.

Shaw has fiirnished us with the following curious account of the phenomena yielded by this extraordinary meteor, of which he was enabled to obtain the closest inspection : He says, that in travelling by night, in the beginning of April, through the vallies of Mount Ephraim, we were attended, for the space of an hour, with an Ignis fatuusj that displayed itself in a variety of extraordinary appearances. For it was sometimes globular, or else pointed like the flame of a candle; afterwards it would spread itself, and involve our whole company in its pale and inoffensive light ; then at once contract, and suddenly disappear.

This gas exhibits phenomena, which; certainly approximiate more nearly to those of the Ignis fatuus than any substance, whose properties have been hi- therto noticed. The volatile alkali, also, in such experiments, might become an useful agent ; since, in the distillation of the salt, formed by the union of this alkali with phosphoric acid, a gas comes over, which does not instantaneously inflame, but displays.

Plot and others. Thomas Itudyerd, of Bwiyerd, Esq: and Mr. Thomas Lane, of Bentley, Esq. Plot, p. Nor can there exist any doubt, as to the source whence volatile alkali, and even the phosphorus itself, is de- rived, when it is recollected, that, with this crust of mould, a consi- derable quantity of animal matter must be blended, proceeding from the myriads of insects which had fed on the vegetables, the remains of which it is composed.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, a more strict and close mode of philosophising, than had been hitherto employed, appears to have been generally adopted : this is evident in almost all the writings which were published on these subjects at this period. Correctness of judgment, and propriety in arrangement, became now generally conspicuous.

Gesftet's Jo. But the work, which comprises the most information, and indeed, from which every lover of the science must derive the greatest degree of satisfaction and pleasure, is that of the celebrated Mr. Knorr, and at his death was continued with equal care and zeal by Mr. The only works, entirely devoted to these subjects, which have ap- peared in England since the republication of Lhwyd's work, are. Through the whole series of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, is dispersed a consider- able portion of information respecting the reniains of the ancient world, in communications from Sir Hans Sloane, the Hon.

Daines Barrington, Dr. Stukeley, Dr. Molyrieux, Dr. Mortimer, Dr. Cam- 28 per, Dr. Hunter, Mr. Ray, Mr. Joshua Piatt, Mr. Da Costa, Mr. John Hunter, and many other gentlemen distinguished for their avidity of research, and their extensive knowledge respecting the astonishing productions of nature. Wistar, and Mr. Turner, respecting the bones of various un- known animals, which have been discovered in that part of the world. In were published some very interesting observations on these subjects, in the Physiological Disquisitions of Mr.

William Jones. Of this work only seven numbers have been yet published. The figures are given with such fidelity, and the descriptions with so much accuracy, that it is only by supposing the natural history of these substances is not so generally known, as to have excited a sufficient degree of interest in collectors, that we can account for the public demand not having called for their more frequent publication. Cuvier, in a paper given into La Societe d'Histoire Naturellcj at Paris, has published some important remarks on the fossil remains of various unknown animals ; and has likewise announced his inten- tion of publishing his enquiries on this subject, on a very extended scale.

From this work so much information is to be expected, that, I doubt not, its publication will prove an important epoch in the history of this science. It must, however, be acknowledged, that during the last fifty years, trations of Mr. Donovan, the scientific publications of Dr. Shaw ; and- the ingenious lectures on Comparative Anatomy by Mr.

Ma- cartney: not to particularise the numerous interesting observations of Mr. The science then, the study of which is here intended to be promoted, and which not only deserves to be considered as supple- mentary to zoology and mineralogy; but as the medium by which the one may be connected with the other, cannot surely but parti- cipate in the attention they obtain.

This, I trust, will prove to be the case, in the present instance. I have to speak of substances, which, in my opinion, have never yet been designated by appropriate terms : and to treat of a science, which has not yet acquired a peculiar name. Si to be proofi of this species of vegetation ; since their volume was ob- served evidently toencrease, and apparently in determined forms.

Others, who supposed they owed their forms to certain extraordinary changes, which took place at the period at which the earth was overwhelmed by the general deluge, described them as diluvian stones lapides diluviam. But whilst they thus, with the utmost propriety, employed such expressions as were, at least, not likely to mislead, they, of neces- sity, were confined to such as were deficient in significancy.

But when the discovery was made, that most of these figured stones were remains of subjects of the vegetable and animal king- dom, these modes of expression were found insufficient; and, whilst endeavouring to find appropriate teims, a considerable difficulty arose; language uot possessing a sign to represent that idea, which the mind of man had not till now conceived. The nature and origin of these substances had long been enveloped in the darkest ignorance; and when sufficient rays of light had broken in upon them, to enable the philosopher to view them more distinctly, he plainly saw the important relation, which they bore to the history of our globe; and found himself engaged, in the contemplation of objects almost unknown; and in the study of a science, entirely new.

This occurring, at so late a period, when language was fully esta- blished, and when every word had its peculiar office allotted to it; necessity drove him to the alternative of either, coining new words, or of selecting, from those already in use, such as might be adopted for the description of these substances.

The word fossil appears to be the only word our language can supply, which is capable of being employed as the tenn denoting these Bubstanceis in general. The propriety of adopting it will appear,, when we conisider its deriration, and the characteristics of the bodies it is intended to signify. Tfie epiihfeti feitmnedus or adventitious, proposed by Sir John Hi!! The term extraneous denotes, that the substance spoken of, is 36 be natives of, and to have existed primitively in, the slibterraneali regions: such are the: metals, stones of the granitic class, and most of the various substances, of which the primitive mountains are formed.

Secondary fossils, which are alone intended to hk the subjectg of our inviestigation, may, according to their origin, be divided into two classes, vegetable or animal fossils. When this IS the result of the fortuitous concurrence of certain marks on the surface, they have been termed lapides pictij and graptoUthi; and when the resemblance depends on the whole external form, they have been named lithoglyphi. Moreti, tract, de JEitr.

Maris, cap. Fulgosi Diet. Mountains are, with propriety, divided into primitive, or prime-t ral; and secondary, or epizootic. The primitive and secondary mountains differ, not only in their composition, but even their form.

They are commonly the highest ridgea in any chain, and terminate, generally, more narrow and sharps than the secondary. The most distinguishing character of these mountains, according to Mr. It is difficultly acted on by any acid, except that which is obtained by distillation from Derbyshire fluor spar; and which is termed fluoric acid. It is, however, very powerfully acted, on by the alkalies, which promote its fusion : and, when thus com- bined with it, in a certain degree, form glass.

This stone frequently displays, in a most beautiful and distinct manner; the three substances of which it is composed. The micay composed of the same constituents, but in diflferent proportions, will appear ge- nerally in grains, about the size of a pin's head, of different colours, but, most commonly, black; and, sometimes, in white flakes of a metallic lustre.

The quartz will be found interposed between these, generally of a greyish colour ; and appearing to be the medium by which the otlier two substances are agglutinated together. This earth is rendered tolerably pure, when, by intense heat, it is made into quick-lime. It fuses, when combined with flint and clay ; and readily combines with acids. Lime has been supposed by those of high authority, to have been entirely of animal origin.

This, however, cannot be admitted; al- though it is indubitable, that a considerable portion of it has pass- ed through the animal kingdom : vast masses existing of animal re- mains, resolved into this earth, which still retain sufficient of their previous structure, to point out the form they had originally borne. Magkesia is a very light substance, and soluble in about times its weight of water. Shlphurets op mbtals, and particularly that of iron, found at various diepths, and frequently e»tering into the composition of se- condary fossils, demand a few words.

They, in general, shine with a brHitent metalMc Itrstre: and when they do not, they frequently suifer decomposition, on exposure to the action of the air. We had not long alighted, before a gentle womanv about forty years of age, of a genteel and pleasing appearance, who was at the window when the carriage stopped, advanced to us from the house, which had most particularly excited our attention; and, in the most polite manner, requested us to favour her with our com- pany, and to partake of some refreshment.

The invitation was too welcome to us to be rejected ; we, therefore, cheerfully accompa- nied her into the house ; the inside of which manifested the same neatness, and the same display of taste, which we had already wit- nessed. Shewing us into a parlour, she in a very frank manner in- formed us, that we were now in the vicarage house, pointing to the church, at about half a mile distance ; and informed us, that her husband had performed the duties of this cure, nearly ten years.

Mutual confidence being thus established, our kind hostess informed us, that, as the sun would soon set, and as there was no inn which could receive us, within fifteen miles, she must intreat our promise to take up our abode there that evening. This, she said,, was a request, in which Mr.

Inman would most heartily join her; nay, she added, he would not forgive her if she had failed, in se- curing him the pleasure of such agreeable society. The tea-things were soon arranged, and our kind hostess placed us in the bow- window, from which we were gratified, with an unin- terrupted view of a very extensive plain of country ; stretching from 50 the unexpected weight of the parcel cammitted to his charge, nearly let it fall to the ground.

When he had a little recovered himself, he requested Mr. Inman to inform him, what kind of substance this was. Another piece pos- sessed the blackness of ebony, but had as high a degree of polish, as the smoothest glass. Another specimen was ahnost entirely itt- vested with a crust of most brilliant crystals.

On the following morning, our kind host conducted us up th0 mountain; and shewed us the spot where, on the day before, hp had found the pieces of wood we had seen. Vegetable FOSSILS, or vegetable secondary fossils, will now, very properly, according to the arrangement I have adopted, be- come the subjects of our investigation. This also will be the pro- per moment for their consideration ; since thife curious phenomena you lately beheld, have, it is very evident, excited your curiosity and interest, respecting their particular changes, to a very considerable degree.

Fossil plants f» — 3. Fossil stalks. Fossil fruits AND seed-vessels f. This, he observes, is very asto- nishing; since, even higher up in the country, no trees are to be found. Eratosthenes relates the same circumstance, as observable in the Persian Sea. Lithocalami, of Wallerius. A piece of this kiad of ebony, he says, was once presented to him as a branch of blHck coral. He relates, that he himself saw, in a pool near the castle of Robestiein, in Misena, many trunks of trees, which were changed into stone.

These are very long, and seem as if they had been placed together in heaps; their stony hardness being rendered sufficiently evident, on being struck by a piece of iron, or another stone. In the aluminous earth of Hildesheim is also found the fossil wood, which, as has been just observed, has been considered as fossil ebony.

Basiles, MDLyiil. Thus he says, respecting the piece of timber found by Jovianus Pontanus, in the promontory of Pausi- lypus, in consequence of a part of the rock being broken off by the violence of the storm, we ;Cannot determine, as these particulars are not explained, whether it vras a stone which only bore the form of a piece of wood, or whether it was actually wood, converted into stone.

Others there are, whach cannot be said to derive their origin from a vegetable nature ; except in some very remote way, but are entirely the work of nature. De Boot-j- relates, that near Bruges, in Flanders, upon digging to the depth even of 50 feet, whole forests were found; the leaves, and the trunks being so little altered, that the different species of the trees might be ascertained ; and even the different series of leaves, which had fallen yearly, might also be distinguished.

Basil, mdlviii. Kircheri Mund. Subterranean trees have also been found by Fcanciscus Stellutus, not enveloped merely in earth, but in stone. In Misnia, a beech tree, with all its leaves and branches; was found in a stony stratum, a hundred and eighty ells deep.

In the valley of St. Both Gesner and Albinus mention a beeqh having been found, which was afterwards formed into whetstones. The water in these wells continues perpetually; and is neither augmented nor diminished, by rains or drought.

It is still more remarkable, that on this spot, whenever the workmen dig to the depth of 14 feet, they find the rubbish and ruins of an ancient city, paved streets, houses, and difierent pieces of Mosaic work. Below this, the earth is solid, and appears not to have been moved. Still lower, they find a moist soil, mixed with vegetables ; and at the depth of 26 feet, entire trees, as filberds, with nuts upon them, and great quantities of branches and leaves.

Subterranean trees are found in various parts of Ireland, particu- larly in the morasses; but the greatest attention has been excited to the wood, actually in a petrified state, which is 'found in the neighbourhood of Lough Neagh. He also thought this power was chiefly exerted on the holly ; but he never obtained any positive proof, of this property existing in the waters of the lough ; nor could he procure a piece of petrified wood, with unchanged wood adhering to it.

Smith, whose opportunities of observation were fie- quent, says, in answer to some queries proposed to him on this sub- ject, by Mr. Molyneux, that he thinks the petrifying power of the waters of the lake to be fabulous ; and believes, that the petri- fied wood is found, only in the earth which surrounds, or which forms the bed of the lake, at the sides. He remarks, that none of the pieces he saw, were partly wood, and partly stone ; nor did he ever see the bark petrified. This wood is described, by Dr.

Barton - -, as existing in two dif- ferent states. In the one kind, there is still an exact resemblance to wood, although it is now really stone. This is, generally, in small pieces, which are of a whitish colour, porous, and comparatively lighter than other stones; cleaving easily lengthways, grinding to a smooth surface, so as to be fit to whet knives; and have never yet been found with any wood contiguous to them. Dubliu, Of this kind, two very large pieces are mentioned.

The one was a stone, weighing pounds, which was found two miles from Lough Neagh, on the side towards the river Camlin. This specimen appears to have been, externally, complete stcme ; but internally, evidently woody. The other speci- men was as heavy as two men could lift, and the reverse of the for- mer: the outer coat being of a woody nature, and the internal part entirely stone.

The woody coat of this stone, when first found, was at least a foot thick, except at the ends. These stones are chiefly found at a point called Ahaness, in the county of Antrim; half a mile south of the mouth of the river Glen- evey. The bank at Ahaness is twelve feet high; between the bottom of which and the lowest water-mark in summer, there is a space of about ninety feet; which space, in winter, is sometimes covered with water.

Upon digging a pit in this place, it appeared that the upper stratum is of red clay, four feet deep; the second stratum is of stiff blue clay, four feet deep; the third stratum is formed by a black wood, lying in flakes four feet deep; and under this is clay again. From the top of the stratum of wood to the surface, is a depth of seven feet; and before the water of the lake encroached so far on the land, it appears to have been nineteen feet.

In a paper of Mr. Those which have wood continu- ous with them, have not yet been found atbove twenty yards distance from the waters of the lake; which is about the distance to whiph the waters reach in winter, and other times, when its waters are ex- traordinarily swelled.

There seems, however, little reason to believe, that the waters oi Lough Neagh possess, at present, any petrifying power; since the supporters of this opinion, have not been able to adduce a sin- gle well supported fact, in proof of it, Mr. Childrey relates, that about two miles eastward from St. He remarks, that there are also, on the shores of Cumber- land, trees discovered by the winds at low water, which are else covered over with sand.

Childrey, , p. The earth looked very black, and the wood of these trunks was altogether like ebony. Thus we learn, from Dr. All of them were dyed through, of a black hue, like ebony, but sound enough,, and fit for many uses. Hazel nuts, and a large stag's head with the brow antlers, were also found here, the horn being as sound as the beam itself, and not at all dyed. In the same spot, two Roman urns were also found -f. Richardson, speaking of subterranean trees! The bate or texture of this wood is the same with fir, easily splitting: if burnt it sends out the same rosinous smell, and it afibrds the same coal.

The branches do generally grow in circles, as the knots do yet tes- tify : the knots do easily part from the rest of the wood, as is usual in fir-wood. The straightness and length of these trees, are also a presumption, that they must be such ; if one consider, that some of these are nigh an hundred feet long; and at the bottom, not much above a foot in diameter. Their tops lay all one way, viz. There are also oaks found there, though not in so great quantity. Oaks have been found of twenty, thirty, and thirty-five yards long, yet wanting many yards at the small end.

Some of which have been sold for four, eight, ten, and fifteen pounds apiece; which are as black as ebony, and very lasting and durable in any service that they are put unto. He adds, I have seen some pitch or fir trees, that, as they have laid all along, after that they were fallen, have struck up great branches from their sides, which have grown unto the thickness and height of consider- able trees.

Many of those trees, he observes, of all sorts, have been burnt; but especially the pitch or fir-trees; some quite through, and some all on a side; some have been found chopped and squared, some bored through, other some half riven, with great wooden wedges and stones in them, and broken axe heads, somewhat like sacrificing axes in shape : and all this in such places, and at such depths, as could never be opened from the destruction of this forest, until the time of the drainage.

Near a great rock, in the parish of Hatfield, were found eight or nine coias, of some of the Roman emperors, but exceedingly consumed and defaced with time. Borlase relates, that great numbers of subterranean trees were found cm the shore at Mount's Bay, ComwalL These treea- were very large, and appeared to be oaks, hassel, and willow trees : they were found three hundred yards below full sea mark ; and when the tide is in, have at least twelve feet of water above them.

Allen's, near Bath, in which he saw part of an elm, of more than four feet in length, which was. When the mind. The following observations,, independent of the im- portance they derive from their authors, are in themselves so highly pteresting, that no apology can be necessary for laying them be- fore you, almost unaltered in their form.

Joseph Correa de Serra, went to Sutton, in Lincolnshire, to examine the nature and extent of cer- tain islets of moor, chiefly composed of decayed trees, situated along that coast, and visible only in the lowest ebbs of the year. The remains of some of these trees werer still standing on their roots, while the trunks of the great part lay scattered on the ground, in every possible direction. The barks of trees and roots appeared, generally, as fresh as when they were growing; in that of the branches particularly, of whith a great quantity was found, even the thin silver membranes of the outer skin were discernible.

The timber of all kinds, on the contrary, was decomposed, and soft in the greatest part of the trees: in some, however, it was firm, especially in the roots.. In this stratum of rotten leaves, could also be distinguished some roots of arundo phragmites. In order to ascertain the course of this subterraneous stratum of decayed vegetables.

Sir Joseph Banks directed a boring to be madie, in the fields belonging to the Royal Society, in the parish of Mable- thorpe. The whole appearance of the rotten vegetables which were found, perfectly resemble, according to the remark of Sir Joseph Banks, the moor which, in Blankeney Fen, and in other parts of the East Fen, in Lincolnshire, is thrown up in the making of banks; barks, like those of the birch tree, being there also abundantly found.

The moor extends over all the Lincolnshire fens, and has been traced as far as Peterborough, more than sixty miles to the south of Sutton. Sufficient reasons for this opinion, the Doctor thinks, are yielded by the identity of the levels, as well as that of the species of trees; the roots of these being affixed, in both, as to the soil where they grew; and, above all, the flattened shape of the trunks, branches, and roots, found in the islets, which can only be ac- counted for by the heavy pressure of a superinduced stratum.

What is the epoch of this destruction? By what agency was it? The consideration of this order of fossil vegetables obliges us,, in the opinion of Doctor de Serra, to tecur to that period in the his- tory of our planet, when the surface of the ocean was at least so 72' much above its present level, as to cover even the summits of those seicondary mountains which contain the remains of tropical plants.

The second order of fossil vegetables, comprehends those which are found in the strata of clay and sand ; materials which are the re- sult of slow depositions of the sea, and of rivers ; agents still at work, under the present constitution of our planet. TRiese vegetable re- mains are found, in such flat countries as may be considered to be of a new formation. To this description of fossil vegetables, the decayed trees, and other vegetable remains, belong, which constitute the greater part of the mass of which this moor is formed.

Although these trees are standing in their native soil, Dr. Thus Mons. The petrified trunk of a pakn tree was also found in the desert near the isthmus of Suez, and transmitted to the class of natural his- tory by General Regnier, member of the institute of Egypt. In the account of Mr. But, previously to entering into a particular examination of the changes which take place in vegetables, in the several processes to which they are subjected, whilst passing into a state of mineraliza- tion ; it is necessary to give some slight account of the substances of which they are composed, during their vegetable state; and of such chemical changes as appear to be subservient to the of- fices of vegetation.

Vegetables, besides containing oils, acids, alkalies, earths, and metals, in common with substances of the animal and mineral king- doms, do also contain the following substances, which are peculiar to the subjects of the vegetable kingdom: — Albumen, gluten, jelly, starch, gum, sugar, extract, tannin, wax, resins, camphor, caoiil! The analysis of these substances manifest, that oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen, entering into a triple combination, constitute, with some of the earths, the greatest part of their mass.

In several of these substances, nitrogen is also found to exist; and in some, sulphur has been found. It is now well known, that all vegetables derive their origin from seeds, which consist of cotyledons or lobes, inclosing a radiclcy and a plume. WateiT is abo, most probably, so acted on in the vegetable system, that it is resolved into its two simple principles, hydrogen and oxygeft: both of which are well known to exist, in almost every vegetable substance; and are presumed to be absolutely ttecessary to the performance of various importsuit functions, in the vegetable oeconomy.

Nor can there exist the least impropriety, in considering these sub- stances, as well as phosphorus and sulphur, when thus imbibed, as having constituted a part of the actual food of plants. When the fineness of the fibrillar are considered, in which the roots terminate ; and which may be supposed to contain the orifices of that ciass of absorbents: and when the minuteness of the pores which are found on those parts of the plant which are above ground are also considered, there seems to be great reason to suppose, that all those substances, which are imbibed as food, first pass into a state of aqueous or gaseous solution.

A circumstance which takes place during the germination of seeds may be considered as proving that this is the case. The epidermis, as well as the parenchyma of the leaves, and the other succulent parts, soon become resolved into a soft mass, which yields an unpleasant odour, and which acquires much of its moisture from the extravasation of the sap and othar vegetable juices. The mass derives, perhaps, also an increase of its fluidity, from the hydro- gen and oxygen, which had been employed in the formation of vari- ous parts of the vegetable, being now let loose, and entering into a new combination, by which water is formed.

Another portion of the hydrogen becemes also volatilized, and uniting with a portion of car- bon, forms carburetted hydrogen gas, and other inflammable gases, somewhat similar in their composition. In the decomposition of those plants, into the composition of which nitrogen enters, this principle enters directly into union with the hydrogen, at the moment of their 84 except to notice two curious and interesting phenomena, which it Bometimes offers to our observation. The first of the phenomena, here meant, is that which is termed the Ignis fatutiSj or Will of the Wisp.

This is well known to be a lam- bent flame, appearing at night, over marshy lands; and which, by its flitting motion, and by the sudden disappearance, and as sudden renewal of its flame, serves frequently to mislead the wandering, and even cautious traveller.

Shaw has fiirnished us with the following curious account of the phenomena yielded by this extraordinary meteor, of which he was enabled to obtain the closest inspection : He says, that in travelling by night, in the beginning of April, through the vallies of Mount Ephraim, we were attended, for the space of an hour, with an Ignis fatuusj that displayed itself in a variety of extraordinary appearances. For it was sometimes globular, or else pointed like the flame of a candle; afterwards it would spread itself, and involve our whole company in its pale and inoffensive light ; then at once contract, and suddenly disappear.

This gas exhibits phenomena, which; certainly approximiate more nearly to those of the Ignis fatuus than any substance, whose properties have been hi- therto noticed. The volatile alkali, also, in such experiments, might become an useful agent ; since, in the distillation of the salt, formed by the union of this alkali with phosphoric acid, a gas comes over, which does not instantaneously inflame, but displays. Plot and others. Thomas Itudyerd, of Bwiyerd, Esq: and Mr. Thomas Lane, of Bentley, Esq.

Plot, p. Nor can there exist any doubt, as to the source whence volatile alkali, and even the phosphorus itself, is de- rived, when it is recollected, that, with this crust of mould, a consi- derable quantity of animal matter must be blended, proceeding from the myriads of insects which had fed on the vegetables, the remains of which it is composed.

From the resolution of animal matter in subterranean situations, must also proceed the various metallic and other phosphates, so eminent in their brilliance and colours. X HE substance, to which I next wish particularly to attract your attention, is one which has beeii seldom, or hardly ever, cbhsidered in relation to the bodies termed petri][lictiotis ; but whicb» I suspect, is very nearly connected with those which derive thieiF origin from the vegetable kingdom.

It is found in various parts of the world, forming immense tracts, at various depths. It is a soft but compact substance; its colour being of a bright reddish brown. As it dries, upon exposure to the air, it becomes soon darker ; the dark- ness increasing, in the best peat, until it acquires almost the black- ness of coal : at the same time it becomes a hard, tough, weighty, mass, very difficult to be cut or even broken ; and which, in general, contains many remains of vegetable matter.

It absorbs water, and retains it so strongly, as to be found almost always in a wet state, in its natural situation ; hence, when near the surface, it forms bogs, which are exceedingly dangerous for such animals as attempt to pass over them.

The best peat is smooth, and cuts clean with the peat- spade, being almost of the consistence of soap. When properly dried, which is accomplished, by cutting it into square pieces of the size of a brick, exposed to the conjoint action of the sun and air, the peat becomes a very combustible sub- stance; burning, when pure, with a clear bright flame, and yield- ing a hard firm charcoal, which bums with a vivid glow, until re- duced to a very small portion of very light and white ash.

Other varieties, in its appearance, are frequently observable; de- pending on the quantity of the extraneous matters, with which it has become blended. Adrianus Junius observes, that there are several kinds of these turf-like substances. The first kind, which he describes, is of a red- dish coloiu:, poor, and spongy; very light, and of but little value; being only used to heat brewers' coppers. Whilst burning, it gives to the countenance a livid, cadaverous hue; making men appear like ghosts : it, at the same time, produces a noxious vapour, which Cdcasions fainting ; to prevent whiqh it is sprinkled with salt.

The second kind is more dense, of a blackish brown colour, and is inter- sected by twigs and rushes, in various directions. It is heavier tiian the former kind, and more generally useful. The third kind is heavy, and sinks in water, which the former kinds do not. It is of an ash colour, and is dug in a sandy soil: it takes fire slowly, but continues to bum a long time. Anderson, well known for his vigilant atten- tion to those circumstances, on which the comforts of humble life depend, it is found at various depths, under strata diflfering very con- siderably in their composition, thickness, and number.

Peat, as Mr. Jameson observes, is most commonly to be found in vallies and plains, where it forms very extensive beds ; varying in their depth, from one foot to full forty feet. Mountains, upwards of two thousand feet high, in the Highlands of Scotland, have their tops covered with peat of an excellent kind. In Germany,,! It is also found at the bottom of ponds and ca- nals ; and is sometimes brought up on the coast of Holland, by the flukes of anchors; and also cast on shore in stormy weather, which has induced some to imagine it to be of marine origin.

In the har- bour of Oban, in Argyleshire, one part of the bottom appears to be formed of quick moss, which affords no sure anchorage. The depth of the sea is there about twenty fathoms. In Galloway is the great moss of Cree, lying near to the sea, a lit- tle higher than flood-mark at spring tides. Near Dumfries is Locker Moss, only a few feet above high water mark : it is about ten miles in length. Peat appears to have been long in use, as fuel, in different parts of Germany.

He describes it as a bituminous matter, thrown on shore by the sea, and which has been afberwards covered by the earth. Tooke informs us, that in Siberia, there are great plenty of morasses, and of various magnitudes. X Lib. In the interior of the em- pire we meet with smaller; and many of the forests have a swampy bottom.

They are absolutely unprofitable ; or at teast they are held to be so f. He particularises several places, where it is found to abound very much. He obtained it from Hampstead Heath, and from Godalming, in Surrey. There is also great quanti- ties of this kind of turf in the northern parts of Yorkshire, and in the bishoprick of Durham. About a mile from Langrow, in Cum- berland, is a stratum of bituminous earth, three feet thick, which contains parts of the trunks of trees, leaves, sprays of shrubs, and other vegetable substances, in such quantity that the far greater part of the stratum seemed to be formed by them.

London, , p. The willow trees, which were two feet and upwards in diameter, retained a whitish colour like touchwood, and were even softer than the adjoining earth or moor- log. The moor-log appeared at about three and a half or four feet under the marsh ground, and diflfered in thickness, in different parts. Up the Thames, at Deptford, it was six feet in thickness.

In Wool- wich Reach, where Captain Bronsden had then beein repairing his wharfs, over against the ballast wharf, it was between seven or eight feet thick. In Plumsted Levels, just against Barking Creek, its thickness was full nine feet; its thickness, as well as its breadth, gradually increasing down the river, on both sides.

None of it, he says, was to be seen where the course of the river cuts into the high-land, as at Woolwich, Erith, and Purfleet. Beneath the moor- log was a stratum of blue clay, and under this gravel and sand. The peat found in the middle of a valley, across which the town of Newbury lies, north and south.

Trans, vol. Near Aberdovey, in Merionethshire, he observed a considerable peat-moss, extending along the shore to Tomyn, reaching into the sea to an unknown extent, from which the inhabitants dig their fuel. Whole bodies of trees, according to the relation of Dr. Gerard Boate, are frequently found, in Ireland, by the turf diggers, very deep in the ground.

And it is worthy of observation, he says, that trees and trunks of trees are, in this manner, found, not only in the wet bogs, but even in the heathy ones, or red bogs ; as in that by the Shannon side, in which bog the turf diggers do many times find whole fir trees, deep in the ground : whether it be that those trees being fallen, are by degrees sunk deeper and deeper, or that the earth in length of time be grown over them-f. Not only the presence of fossil trees in beds of turf, but also the existence of this substance at a prodigious height, is related, by Villars, professor of natural history of Grenoble, in a paper read before the national institute of France.

Gerard Boate, , p. Huygens de Zulichem. In the foregoing account, Mr. Huygens remarks, one thing is par- ticularly observable, the occurrence of turf twice in the same boring, once immediately below the vegetable mould and gravel stony ground , and again at the depth of seventy-two feet. Various opinions have been adopted respecting the origin of peat, arising from the different appearances yielded by it in differ- ent situations.

Many were of opinion, that it had obtained the forti in which it now appears, when it originally came from the.. If they be real pine- nuts, they must, he says, astonish every one; for although the pine is found in considerable numbers near to Breda, in Brabant, yet it is seldom found in any other part of Belgium. The only difference, he thinks, is that, in the seeming pine nuts, there is an admixture of sulphur and other things, which render them of a resinous nature, similar to the real cones.

Plot, in his Natural History of Staffordshire, relates, that at that period there were two floating islands on Kinson Pool, which were about twenty feet broad, and about thirty, or perhaps forty, feet long. The substance, with whose nature and properties I shall next en- deavour to make you acquainted, is that which in Iceland is called surturbrand, and which, in this country, is chiefly known by the name of Bovey Coal.

The ligniform appearances, which bituminous substances some- times bear, have been long known, and even the particular kind Avhich we are now about to examine, has been noticed by some of the early writers in natural history.

This substance, although pos- sessing all the properties of bitumen, bears the distinctive marks of wood, but generally in the form of splinters or chips; or, if in larger masses, these are very capable of being divided into such fragments, even with a very slight force. The fibres of this wood, unlike to yegetable wood, were contorted and twisted in almost every direction, and it was generally found split into slices or chips.

It was very light, except when containing pyrites, and its colour was a darkish brown. Whilst burning, it yielded a sul- phureous or bituminous smell, and was thereby resolved into a light white earth, not unlike to amianthus, or plumose alum. White, hard, and exceedingly heavy pjrrites, and particles of sulphur, he observes, were found very abundantly in this vein of fossil wood. Beneath this layer of wood, the earth was strongly bituminous for nearly seven feet deep, and differed hardly in any thing fit m the wood itself, except that the fibres, which were distinguishable in the wood, were not here to be discovered of the same length: it was also much more frequently divided by clifts.

At first, on perceiving that this wood was so light as to swim on water; that it inflamed on being ignited; that it bore the marks of the long veins of wood ; and, that it even had knots from which the boughs appeared to have grown ; he concbided it to be real wood. This fossil, when first taken out of the earth, burnt like a bone ; and consumed slowly in the fire, with a considerable smoke and disagreeable smell; but if dried, before it was burnt, the smell was more pleasing.

Many of the pieces, he observes, are sprinkled with pyrites; and there exudes from some parts of it, a white bituminous substance, like rosin. There were only found, he says, portions resembling trunks, but no ves- tiges of branches, knot, or roots ; which yielded an argument, as it were, that woods might be generated and concreted in this form, and not, according to the vulgar, derived from wood overthrown and become petrified.

This wood existed almost entirely in small fragments, laying very compactly on each other, each fragment being divided by numerous fissures, so as to render it difficult to form any opinion of the real size of the trunks, or branches, which they originally formed. Nor, during all the time which they had dug for this wood, had they ever met with any of length suflicient to show the branches; neither had they discovered any leaves, or any fragment still retaining its circular form.

The pro- fessor, however, hhnself saw a trunk with a portion of the roots still adhering, fully impregnated with pyrites. On another piece he ob- served the traces of leaves sufficiently evident. Frequently, he re- marks, are pieces of wood found, not merely almost surrounded with pyrites, but so fully impregnated with them, that although the situa- tion and form of the several parts of the wood are exactly preserved, its conversion into pyrites appears to be entirely complete.

To present this decomposition and destruction of his ihore valuable specimens, he adopted the practice of washing off the salts from them, by two or three times in the day pouting boiling water over them; and thus he had preserved some for the space of three or four years. The quantity of this fossil wood appears to have been truly pro- digious. The stratum, of which we have hitherto spoken, was about twenty feet in depth, the bottom of it resting on a stratum of stone; about a foot in thickness.

The earth, which lay over the fossil wood, not only had the same brown colour for more than half a foot in thickness, but was im- pregnated with similar sulphureous, and aluminous particles, and even yielded almost as good fuel. Taking advantage of a passage which had been dug into the body of fossil wood, the professor passed nearly two hundred feet in length within it, so that the roof, floor, and sides of the place, in which he stood, were entirely composed, of what he esteemed, a mass of vegetable ruins.

Between the fossil wood was seen, in some places, a Ill vein ot hard, blackish bitumen, possessing almost the hardness and splendor of jet. This vein of indurated bitumen, was a foQt, and even more, in thickness. The professor saw, also, some specimens of marble, from this mountain, containing small bivalves; and obtained, from the same mountain, two marine shells, the one in a petrified, and the other in a pirytified state; as well as a most elegant serrated tooth, resembling those of the shark, which, with its base, measured three inches and an half in height.

The height of this mountain appears to be about feet, exceeding that of the mountain, just described, in the neighbourhood of Munden, full seven hundred feet. His astonishment was here still more excited, than when contemplating the wonders of the former mountain. This fossil coal agreed almost in every respect with the small vein of bi- tumen he had observed in the interior passages, which had been dug in the mass of fossil wood, in the former mountain: possessing, like it, the brightness and hardness of jet.

That which was at a greater distance from the vein of coal, being situated still lower, diflfering not much in its colour, and general qualities and appearance, from common decayed wood. In the same manner, also, did the lower surface of the fossil coal apply to the superior surface of the fossil wood. Milles observing, that the fossil wood de- scribed by Professor HoUman corresponded in many particulars with some strata, discovered about fifteen years before, in Devon- shire, and which he was satisfied were not of vegetable origin ; con-: eluded therefore, that the substance described by Professor HoU- man, likewise, was not wood.

The account of this fossil, the Bovey Coal, as given by Dr. Milles, is highly interesting, and is therefore here given in his own words. From the sand arises a spring of clear blue water, which the miners call mundic water j and a water of the same kind, trickling through the crevices of the coal, tinges the outside of it with a blue cast. It is sometimes of a chocolate colour, and sometimes of a shining black.

It lies ip straight and even veins, and is frequently dug in pieces, of three or foiir feet long, and, with proper care, might be taken out of a much greater leQgth. At all times, it is easily to be separated into very thin laminae, or splinters; especially if it lie exposed any time to the heat of the sun ; whieh, like the fire, makefs it crackle, separate, and fall to pieces.

Though the texture of this coal is laminated, yet it does not appear to have amy of those fibrous intersections, which are observed in the grains of att wood. The observations on which he founded this opinion, will require; however, here to be mentioned only in a cursory manner. Fossil trees, he likewise observes, preserve their form and size, their length and roundness, their branches and roots, their fibrous texture and strength; and are either found entire, or in such large pieces, that there is no room to doubt of their na- ture ; since the very species of wood is frequently distinguishable : whereas the Bovey Coal comes out only in flat pieces of a few feet long, like the splinters of large masts; and on them we discover no signs of roots, branches, or bark; no round pieces, or concentric cir- cles, which distinguish the annual growth of trees : the laminae, which have the appearance of wood, being always horizontal, according to the situation of the pieces in the strata.

The inflammability, and laminated texture, of this fossil, which have been the circumstances leading to the supposition, of its being of vegetable origin, may be accounted for, in the opinion of Dn Milles, from the nature of its principles, and their disposition, when united, to assume certain fomis. It must not be omitted to remark, that the strata of Bovey ac- cord very much with those of Munden and AUendorf ; the stratuiu of wood, both in Germany and England, being accompslnied with clays, boles, and sand.

At Bovey, there also being beds of very fine pipe-clay, of which great quantities used to be sent to Liver- pool. When first dug out of the earth, it is capable of being bent like a twig ; but it is brittle, when dry. It consists of oblique fibres, frequently interrupted by knote, like the roots of a great tree, which are full of crevices.

This stratum is found, he says, some yards under the earth, in a niioun- tain so high and perpendicular, that those only who have been ac- customed to climb such precipices, can venture to dig for it. It is, he says, generally wavy and undulated; and found in the rocks or great stones, wedged, as it were, close in. But the most satisfactory account we have had of the fossil wood of Iceland, is given by Dr. Wormian, lib. Solander, and Dr. The smiths prefer it to sea coal, because it does not so soon waste the iron.

The Icelanders make a powder of it, which they make use of ta preserve their clothes from moths : they likewise appfy it externally against the cholic. The samue sort of fossil wood is described by Wonnius as: found in the island of Faro. Plott in his History of Oxfordshire, relates, that the scarcity of firing, in some parts of that county, has induced the people to bum a sort of black substance, of a grain somewhat like rotten wood, half burnt; partaking also of a mineral nature, and therefore called by authors metallophytany or lignum, fossik.

Put into water, it will not swim; and into fire, it consumes but slowly, and sends forth very unpleasant fumes. A vein of it, at Ducklington, looked like wood; yet broken, shewed a smooth and shining superficies, oot unlike to stone pitch; and put into the fire has not near so ill a smell. Morton, who likewise did not believe in the subterranean change and preservation of organised matter, describes two or three species of this metallophytonf , one of which, he says, is of a dark colour, and has a grain; for in one direction which is usually ac-« cording to the length of the pieces it cleaves or parts pretty readily into plates and splinters; the other way it snaps into shorter pieces, and will not cleave at all.

There is another sort, which does not so readily part into flakes. NQne of these are found in any large masses. They are all, more or less, of a gbssy black, and have a density or smoothness within, like that of bitumen, or jet« In that also they resemble, as he remarks, the true bitumen, or piasaphadK ton.

Hotf, p. A coal is found in the cliffs, near the castle, in the isle of Port- land, which has been thought to be similar to the coal which we have been hitherto considering. The Kimeridge Coal, so called from the place where it is dug, and which appears in most of the cliffs of the isle of Purbeck, from St.

Aldhelm's Chapel to East liul worth, and at Ovington, opposite to that part of Portland where the. But on reviewing the description of these coals, which are said to be very hard, and to shiver into pieces like slate, when exposed to the air, I am more disposed to suspect, that this fossil was rather a bitumi- nous schistus, than a species of the Bovey Coal.

Of this kind too, very probably, was the fossil wood described by Cffisalpinus, as found in the kingdom of Naples, in a hill near the city of St. Part of this, he says, is formed of an incrusted in- flammable stone, of a brown or ash colour, resembling decayed' wood. This, he says, the inhabitants employ for their fires. As it bums it becomes black, like half-burnt wood, and at length passes into cinders.

Fontaine discovered a subterraneous forest, at the bottom' of the chain of mountains between Lyons and Strasburgh. Sir Joseph has preserved several trunks of it,, each of which is flattened, possibly by the weight of super-incum- bent strata; so that instead of being cylindrical, as the body or root of a tree naturally is, it is flat. Some of them are more, and some less woody; one is a fair plank of wood. As the woody ones are the greatest curiosities, they are sent in preference.

In the lower part, however, the transformation had proceeded further than at the top, so that it was real coal, while the top was actual wood -j-. Count Stolberg relates, that bituminous wood may be found almost every where, at a certain depth, on the westem part of Orange Nassau; in about fathoms west of which is an immense quarry of iron stone. Pillingen informs us, that upon distilling the fossil wood of Meiz- libizen, he obtained from it, as well as from thie bituminous earth, which accompanied it, nothing which appeared' to be derived from vegetable matter.

With a gentle heat, on sand, a water came over, tasting of bitumen, and a limpid and penetrating oil, like oil of amber. On increasing the heat, he obtained a more foetid, thick, and sulphurous oil; with a shghtly acid, but pungentlj smelling water. From one pound of Bovey Coal, of the woody kind, he obtained on sand, four ounces and a half of water, of a bituminous smell and taste ; nearly four ounces of a turbid, whitish, bituminous liquor, of an intolerable foetid smell, and extremely pungent to the tongue; and about two drachms of a heavy bituminous matter, which would not mix with the former liquor, but sunk entirely to the bottom, without leaving any light oil floating on the bituminous liquor.

There remained in the retort about seven ounces of a very black powder, which had the same bituminous smell, and not very heavy; some of which being put on a red hot iron, emitted a little smoke, but no flame. The ashes of this fossil yielded no salt on being boiled in water. By exposing the black gritty powder, in a retort, to a red heat for two hours, the neck of the retort became thinly incrusted with something that resembled a saline concrete, but which he found to be only a bituminous matter.

The answer to Dr. Milles's paper, not appearing in the Philosophical Transactions, it seemed that the Professor, subdued by his superior arguments, had left the field to Dr. Milles, and had totally relin- quished the opinions he had before advanced. Thus the state of the controversy existed for upwards of twenty years, when Professor HoUman finding that his paper had not been published in the Phi- losophical Transactions of London, he published it himself, with additional arguments, undeniably proving the truth of his first opi- nions, and the mistake of his opponent.

In justice to the conductors of the Philosophical Transactions, I must inform you, that a diligent examination of the papers of the Royal Society, contained in the library of the British Museum, has Induced me to believe, that Dr. HoUman's paper never came to hand; since it is not to be found in its place: nor does there appear to be any notice of its having been received. I am pleased to find your last letter dated from Exeter, since it suggests to me, that by your taking Bovey ill your way, you will be able to obtain for me some account of the Bovey Coal, on the spot.

This, I am confident, you will obtain, by applying to J. Templer, EscJ. This gentleman, Robert Scammell, Esq. With regard to their depth, a more accurate idea may be ibmied from the annexed sketch; remarking, in this place, the lower the coal, the less the depth of the incumbent strata. The depth of the coal strata is various, as the following sketch will elu- cidate. The following table shows the depth of the several coal beds which are worked. The shaft, from the grass to the bottom of the last coal stratum, is seventy-five feet deep.

It has been bored thirty- three feet still deeper, but nothing was discovered but a kind of muddy clay, intermixed with sand. The direction of the strata is from north to south; the inclina- tion or dip tending to the latter. This inclination is computed to be about one foot in six ; the leading part is from east to west.

The northern part reaches to the surface, within an hundred yards of the shaft, where it is cut off by a bed of sand ; to what depth the southern extremity reaches has not been, and possibly cannot be, ascertain- ed; however, it has been found to extend a quarter of a mile.

The eastern portion has been clearly found to extend upwards of seven miles, by the experiment of repeated boring; whilst the western has not, as yet, been traced further than two miles. The whole area, including the working, from the first period to the present time, amounts to ten acres. The Bovey Coal is now used for supplying the steam-engine, for burning Hme, and, occasionally, for giving the earthen-ware its first burning; it is not now used for domestic purposes, the sulphurous gas it emits being, not only extremely disagreeable, but injurious to the health of the inhabitants.

It has been said, that exposure to the influence of the sun and atmosphere, for some months, has deprived it of this pernicious quality ; but this is not warranted by ex- perience; even seven years has only lessened, but by no means de- stroyed it intirely. The coal has some peculiarities, with respect to its appearance. From this circumstance, the workmen have divided it into three species or varieties, which they call stone coal, board coaly and knotty coal.

Some portions bear evidently the effect of fire, and resemble, in every respect, as to external appearance and touch, the common charcoal. From every observation and inquiry I have made, it does not ap- pear, that any substance of a vegetable form has ever been dis- covered, either in the coal strata or incumbent strata: no leaves, pine-nuts, or any thing of a similar nature.

Solid bitumen has often been met with, both in the coal and argillaceous strata; and it has been remarked, that the coal, taken up after this substance has been found, is always of good quality. The iron pyrites is met with very frequently. There are springs impregnated with ferruginous matter, depositing an ochre, which is sometimes used in the pottery.

It appears, upon enquiry, that the space of time from the Biovey Coal being first worked, to the present, is a period of upwards of ninety years. The annexed sketch shews the arrangement of strata. The white denotes the argillaceous strata, the black points out the strata, from which the coal is procured ; and the lightly shaded are strata containing an inferior kind of coal, not worth taking up.

The spot now -worked for the Bovey Coal, is situated in low boggy ground, which extends several miles : it is said to be the lowest in the county, but this is an assertion not true. To the south of the shaft, about a quarter of a mile, is a bog, from which has been taken several feet below the surface many trees of the fir kind ; several eighteen inches in diameter, together with pine- nuts, but no traces of coal.

This is the account with which our friendly guide favoured us, and to us it has proved highly gratifying ; since we have been thereby enabled to compare the present state of this curious spot, with that in which it existed near fifty years ago, according to the descrip- tion given by Dr. To you, for the same reason, it cannot but prove particularly acceptable. Naphtha, petroleum, mineral tar, mineral pitch or maltha, asphalt, elastic bi- tumen, jet, mineral coal, amber, and mineral tallow, are the different substances which, by general consent, are placed in this class.

The propriety of dwelling on the history of these substances, in a work devoted to secondary fossils, may not, perhaps, at first sight, appear; but when their origin is more closely traced, and when they are considered, in connection with the other substances, which appear to be derived from the same origin ; not only will their im- portance be perceived, but their right to be considered, themselves, as secondary fossils, will, I trust, be evident. Bitumen is a substance of a peculiar kind, seeming to partake both of an oily and resinous nature, and is found either buried in, or proceeding from, different parts of the earth, in different states of consistence.

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