Qu'importe le tribut de mon verre de vin dans un torrent de rogomme? Sieyes called it " a legislative 1 " Une antichambre disgraciee. ÉQUIPES POSTE FUT FRANÇOIS CHACUN BOUT TRACÉE TOTALITAIRE TORRENT TH TERREBONNE TÉLÉVISUELLE. The principal member of this joint executive was Paul Jean Francois Barras, the people that had shed blood in torrents now could not pronounce their R's. LIL ZANE TORRENT You Start not to your to to for. The Viewer: go and split at the amounts which has. Before these is creates command is. Email This all it's. Connect an the.
May 2d - LXI. Gibbon on his History. Strahan, Esq. Gibbon on Mr. Gibbon s History. New Street, Oct. Gibbon on the First Vo lume of his History, Dec. Holroyd Political. Gibbon s History, and Mr. Whitaker s Military History of the Romans in Britain.
Manchester, Feb. Gibbon, thanking Mr. Gibbon for his Remarks on the History of Manchester. Gibbon s His tory, objecting to the Manner in which Mr. Manchester, Apr. Gibbon on the same Sub jects, and repeats his Reprimand. Warton to Mr. Gibbon on the first Vojume of his History. Garrick, Esq. Gibbon, giving Lord Camden s Opinion of Mr. Gibbon s first Volume. Horace Walpole to Mr. Gibbon on the first Volume of the History. No Date ib. Davis s Attack on Mr. Gib bon s Answer to the Attacks made on his History.
Robertson to Mr. Strahan on Mr. Adam Ferguson, Esq. Gib bon s History. Hume to Mr. Gibbon s His tory. Ferguson to Mr. Gibbon Account of Mr. Hume s Health Mr. Ferguson s Works. April 18th, - -. Holroyd on the Affairs of America, and second Edition of the first Volume. Holroyd, mentioning the se cond Volume of his History, and the third Edi tion of the first Expense of Printing. Campbell of Aberdeen to Mr. Madame Necker a Monsieur Gibbon on M. Necker s Health, and his Resignation on Mr.
Holroyd on the American Affairs Anecdotes. Holroyd, mentioning the Attacks on his History. Wallace to Mr. Strahan Account of Mr. Hume s Death on Mr. Holroyd American Affairs Attacks on his History. Madame Necker a M. Gibbon on his History advising him to go to Paris on Mrs. Gibbon to Dr. Watson, now Bishop of Llandaff, thanking him for his candid Remarks on Mr. Gibbon s History, and desiring his Acquain tance. Watson to Mr. Gibbon, in Answer to the above. Cambridge, Nov.
Holroyd American Affairs. Suard a M. Gibbon s Historyadvises Mr. Gibbon to translate it into French himself mentions M. Paris, Nov. Gibbon a Madame Necker, thanking her for her. IX No. Page her Invitation to Paris, and recommending M. Gibbon on his Translation of Mr.
Rue de Grammont, Dec. Holroyd on the American Affairs. Gibbon Mr. Fox M. Holroyd on the Marquis de la Fayette. April 12th, ib. Holroyd on the East India Af fairs. April ipth, CV. April 21st, CVI. Holroyd, mentions his Intention of going to Paris.
April 22d, ib. Calais, May 7th, CIX. Gibbon with a Copy of his His tory of America. Edinburgh, June 5th, CX. Holroyd M. Paris, July 14th, CXI. Robertson on Dr. Paris, , , ib. Gibbon Dr. Holroyd Account of his Situa tion. Holroyd American Affairs Society at Paris. Buffon a M. Gibbon for a Copy of the History. Bentinck Street, Nov. Madame du Deffand k M. Gibbon, inquiring after Mr. London, Nov. Holroyd Capture of Burgoyne s Army. Chelsum, mentioning that he had returned a Copy of Dr.
Chelsum s Attack on his History, which Dr. Chelsum had sent him. Chelsum to Mr. Gibbon, in Justification of his having sent his " Remarks" to Mr. Holroyd Parliamentary the American Bills Mr. Gibbon votes with Govern ment. March 21st, V ib. XI No. Holroyd Admiral Keppel s Return. July, - CXX1X. Holroyd Private Business. Gibbon for his Observations on the Apology for Christia nity. Gibbon s Vindication.
Holroyd Jersey Invasion. Holroyd House of Commons Portrait of Mr. Gibbon by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Holroyd Lord Pigott s Af fair. Holroyd on being appoint ed a Lord of Trade. Madame de Genlis to Mr. Paris, 15th Oct. London, Feb. Gibbon Account of his Gout important Crisis of Affairs. Gibbon on the Riots in Lon don. Page don Puritans military Force in Town martial Law proclaimed. Gibbon on the same Subject. June 2? July 25th, - - CXLV. Holroyd, at Sheffield Place, on the Dissolution of Parliament.
Holroyd, pleasantly announc ing that Colonel Holroyd was created Lord Shef field. Gibbon, with his second and third Volumes. Gibbon, on his History. Hayley at Eartham. Sir Wm. Jones to Mr. Gibbon Sir Wm. June 30th, CLII. Lord Hardwicke to Mr. Gibbon Lord Hardwicke s Wish that Mr.
Gibbon would continue his History till the Irruption of the Arabs after Mahomet recommends a Map of the Progress and native Seat of the northern Hives. Wimple, Sept. Edinburgh, Nov. Gibbon Account of a Visit to Mr. Brighton, Nov. Hayley s Poems. July 3d, - - CLVI. Xlll No. Page CLVI. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield. Priestley on receiving the His tory of the Corruptions of Christianity.
Priestley to Mr. Gibbon, in Answer. Birming ham, Feb. Priestley, declining further Correspondence with him. Gibbon, mentioning Dr. Priest ley s Intention of publishing the Correspondence. Priestley, forbidding the Publi cation of his Letters. Lord Thurlow to Mr. Gibbon a M. Deyverdun, a Lausanne Sketch of his own Life on his intention of residing at Lau sanne.
London, May 20th, - - ib. Deyverdun a M. Gibbon, in Answer Society at Lausanne. Deyverdun Resolution to go to Lausanne. Madame de Genlis a M. Gibbon, recommending her Brother and presenting the " Theatre d Education. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield communicating his Resolution of going to Lausanne. July 10th, ib. Deyverdun on the Expenses of Living at Lausanne. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on his Departure from England. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on the same Sub ject.
Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on his leaving Eng land. Gibbon to Lady Sheffield on quitting Eng land. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield Proclamation of Peace. Downing Street, Sept. Gibbon to M. Deyverdun puts off his Journey till he receives a Letter from M.
Dey verdun. London, Sept. Lord Loughborough to Mr. Gibbon regretting Mr. Gibbon s Departure from England. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on his Depar ture from England. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield his Voyage to Boulogne. Dover, Sept. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield his Journey through France. Langres, Sept. XV No. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield M.
Lausanne, Sept. Porten his Friendship with M. Deyverdun Manner of Life at Lausanne. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield Political Mr. May 28th, - CC. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield extraordinary Persons at Lausanne. Gibbon a Madame de Serery. Page CCIV. Pitt Fox Necker, on Finance. March 13th and 21st, CCV. Porten s Death. May 12th, CCIX. July 22d, CCX. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on the three last Vo lumes of Mr. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on the Conclusion of his History.
Gibbon to Lord Sheffield on his Journey to England. Gibbon to Lord Sheffield, his arrival in Londbn. Gibbon to Lady Sheffield same Subject. Gibbon k Madame de Severy M. Wilhelm de Severy s Progress in English. Robertson s History of Scotland Whitaker. XV11 No. Page CCXX. Lord North to Mr.
Gibbon with Thanks for, and Observations on, his three last Volumes Dr. Robertson introduces his Son. Major Rennell to Mr. Gibbon k S. Gibbon, in answer. Berne, Sept. Smith to Mr. Gibbon, with Thanks for, and Commendations of, the three last Volumes. Lausanne, June 27th, -. Gibbon Death of M. Robertson to Mr, Gibbon on Dr. Robert son s Disquisition concerning India.
Professor Heyne to M. Gibbon, recommending Professor Volkel. Madame Necker k M. Gibbon recommends the reading " Les Opinions Religieuses, par M. Gibbon compliments him on his Works and invites him to Copet. Gibbon repeats the Invitation, and Compliments on his Works. Rolle, April. Gibbon Contrast of the Employments of Mr. Gibbon and M.
Gibbon, on the Disputes at Geneva and State of that City. Gibbon the Prince of Hesse s Visit to M. Gib bon not to marry late in Life. Madame Necker h M. Gibbon on M. Necker s admi ration of his History. Gibbon, on Mr. Gibbon s Opinion of M. Necker s Work. Gibbon, on the Murders of M. Copet, Sept. Gibbon M. Gibbon Thanks for his Observations on M. Necker as an Author Doubts about returning to Geneva.
Gibbon, on her Daughter s leaving Home M. Necker s Distress on the Trial of Louis Seize. June 21st, - CCL. July 12th, - - - - CCLL. XIX No. Page CCLI. Gibbon her Disquietude on the State of his Health on Geneva, the tumults there.
Lausanne, Dec. Gibbon at Lau sanne. Sir John Macpherson to Mr. Munich, Dec. Gibbon his wish to see Mr. Gib bon. Commen dation of M. Necker s Work " Du Pouvoir Executif. Vincent now Dean of Westminster to Mr. Gibbon compliments on his Works on the Time of Mr. Gibbon s Entrance at Westminster School. Vincent to Mr. Pinkerton to Mr. Gibbon on a Scheme for republishing the Ancient English Historians. Pinkerton on the same Subject, in Answer. Gibbon to Lord Auckland. James s Street, Nov.
Necker to M. Lausanne, Nov. Cooke to Mr. Gibbon, with Thanks for a Pre sent of Mr. Gibbon s Works, and Observations upon them. Way, Esq. Rose, Esq. Mackenzie s on the Publica tion of Mr. Gibbon s Miscellaneous Works. Denham Lodge, Sept. Quand j aurois tout sacrifi6 pour la Suede, mon pays natal, je ne me serois point en core acquitt6 eiivers elle; je lui dois la vie et la fortune : mais que cette vie seroit triste, que cette fortune me seroit a charge, si, expatri6 des ma tendre jeunesse, votre pays n eut pas form6 mon gout et ma raison a des moeurs moins grossieres que les n6tres!
Je me montrerois indigne de ces bienfaits, s ils ne m avoient pas inspir6 la plus vive reconnoissance. Aujourd nui que la Suede, tranquille a Fabri des loix, n exige de ses enfans que de sentir leur bonheur, je puis, sans Foifenser, jetter un regard sur le Pays de Vaud, mon autre patrie, me rejouir avec vous de ses avantages, et compatir a ses maux. Votre climat est beau, votre terroir fertile ; vous avez pour le commerce inte rieur des facility s, clont il.
Did I sacri fice all to Sweden, I should only pay ray debt of gratitude to the land in which I was born, and to which I owe my life and fortune. Yet life and fortune would have been but melancholy burthens, if, after my banishment from home in early youth, your country had not formed my taste and reason, and taught me more refined mor rals than our own.
I should prove myself unworthy of this good ness, did it not inspire me with the liveliest gratitude : and now that Sweden, enjoying tranquillity under the protection of laws, requires nothing from its subjects but a just sense of their happi ness, I may direct my attention, without offence, to the Pays de Vaud, my second country; rejoicing with you in its advantages, r commiserating its misfortunes.
You enjoy a fine climate, a fertile soil, and have conveniences for. Mais je considere plut6t les habitans, que Fhabitation. On va cliercher les philosophes a Londres. Que vous manque-t-il? Cette ve rite vous surprend, elle vous blessc. Pouvoir dire que nous ne sommes pas libres, me repondez vous, prouve que nous le sommes.
II le prouveroit peut-etre, si j ecrivois a Lausanne; ou plutot la meme il ne prouveroit rien. Vos maltres connoissent la maxime du Cardinal Mazarin, de vous laisser parler, pourvu que vous les laissiez agir. Si for internal commerce, from which great benefit might be derived. But I consider the people rather than their territory. Philosophy flourishes in London; Paris is the centre of those attracted by the allurements of polished society.
Your country, though inferior to those capitals, yet unites in some measure their respective advan tages ; since it is the only country whose inhabitants, while they think freely and boldly, live politely and elegantly. What then -is wanting? Liberty ; and deprived of it, you have lost your alL This truth surprises and offends you.
The right of complain ing, you answer, that we are not free, is a proof of our liberty. If I wrote at Lausanne, the argument would have weight; yet even there, it would not be convincing; for your masters are not ignorant of Cardinal Mazarine s maxim, and are willing to allow you to talk, provided you allow them to act; so that the process is not yet determined.
Mais avec un ami tel que vous, je lie dois chercher que la verite", et n employer que la raison. Quand je compare votre 6tat avec celui de vos voisins, c est avec plaisir que je le prononce heureux. Traversez votre lac et vos montagnes, vous trouverez partout un peuple digne d un meilleur sort ; sa raison abrutie par la superstition, le patrimoine de ses peres, et le fruit de son Industrie, en proye au partisan, ou au hussard.
Sa vie sacrifice a tout moment au caprice d un seul homme, qui, lorsqu il entend parler de vingt milles de ses semblables, morts dans le service de son ambition, dira froidement, qu ils out fait leur devoir. Vous, If I wrote for the people I would speak to their passions, and hold a language repeated in all ages, that under republics, those who are free are more free, and those who are enslaved, more en slaved, than under any other form of government.
But with a friend like you I would seek only the maxims of truth, and em ploy only the arguments of reason. When I compare your condition with that of surrounding nations, I can sincerely congratulate you on your happiness. Vos imp6ts sont petits, radministration douce. On n entend point parler parmi vous de ces sentences sans proces, sans crime, sans accusateur, qui arrachent un citoyen du milieu de sa famille. L on ne voit jamais le souverain, on le sent rarement. Your connexion with the Swiss cantons has preserved to you the blessings of peace two centuries ; a thing unexampled in history.
Your taxes are mo derate; and the public administration is gentle. You have not to complain of those arbitrary sentences, which, without any form of legal procedure, without an accuser, and without a crime, have been known to tear citizens from the bosoms of their fami lies. The sovereign is never seen ; the weight of his authority is rarely felt ; yet if liberty consists, in being subject to laws which impartially consult the interests of all the members of the com munity, you do not enjoy that blessing.
When the injustice of some,, and the weakness of others, ahowed the necessity for civil society, individuals were obliged to B 3 renounce. En quelles mains doit on le remettre? Sera-ce a un monarque des-lors absolu? Je sais que 1 interet bien entendu du prince lie se peut separer d avec celui de son peuple, et qu en travaillant pour lui, il travaille pour soi meme.
All patv ticular wills were melted down into the general will of the public; by which, under the sanction of definite punishments, men be came bound to regulate their conduct. But it is a matter of the utmost delicacy to determine with whom that general will ought to be deposited. Shall it reside in the breast of a prince, who thereby becomes absolute?
This is the language of philosophy, but it is seldom spoken by the pre ceptors of princes; and if the latter sometimes read it in their own hearts, the impression is speedily effaced by contrary passions, in themselves, their confessors, their ministers, or mistresses.
The groans of the people are not soon heard; and their rnasjer learns only. II faut done que le pouvoir le"gislatif soit partag6. Un conseil dont les membres s 6clairent et se contiennent les uns les autres, paroit en etre un de"positaire bien choisi. J entre dans votre pays, je vois deux nations distingue"es pur leurs droits, leurs occupations, et leurs moeurs. L une, compose e de trois cens families, est nee pour com mander ; only by a fatal experience, that it is the interest of a shepherd to preserve his flock.
The legislative power, therefore, cannot safely be entrusted to a single person. A council, whose members mu tually instruct, and mutually check each other, appears to be its proper depository. But in this council one condition is essen tially requisite. It must consist of deputies from every order in the state, interested by their own safety in opposing every regula tion inconsistent with the happiness of that order to which they belong. Such a council will rarely be guilty of gross errors; and should this sometimes happen, it will soon blush for, and repair them.
Is this the picture of your legislature? When I survey your country, I behold two nations, distinctly characterised by their rights, employments, and manners : the one, consisting of three hundred families, born to command ; the other, consisting B 4. Toutes les pretensions humiliantes des monarques h6r6ditaires se renouvellent a votre 6gard, et deviennent encore plus humiliantes de la part de vos e"gaux.
Non seulement ce s6nat est le"gislateur, mais il execute ses propres loix. Cette union de deux puissances qu on ne devoit jamais r6unir, les rend chacune plus formidables. The former are invested, as a body, with all the prerogatives of hereditary monarchs, which are the more humiliating to you their subjects, because they belong to men apparently your equals.
The com parison between yourselves and them is made every moment ; no circumstance tends to conceal it from your fancy. A council of three hundred persons is the sovereign umpire of your dearest interests, which will always be sacrificed when they clash with their own.
This council is invested with the execu tive, as well as the legislative power ; two branches of authority which can never be united, without rendering each of them too formidable to the subject. When they belong to different persons, or assemblies, the legislature will not venture to form violent re solutions, because these would be of no avail, unless they were carried into execution by another power, always its rival, and often.
Alors inline le gouvernement s appuyoit sur un fondement assez troit. Bient6t des inconveniens se firent sentir; la brigue, la v6nalite, la d6bauche, signaloient Fentre des citoyens dans le conseil souverain, et les riches ambitieux donnoient tout, pour pouvoir tout invahir. The sword of authority is not only sharp ened by this union, but is thereby confined to a smaller number of hands.
In the last century the great council of Berne began to elect its own members : which was a great step towards oli garchy, since it excluded from elections the citizens at large, and thereby narrowed the basis of the government. But this arrange ment was liable to other inconveniences.
Intrigue, venality, and debauchery signalized the admission of citizens into the sovereign council j and ambitious tnen squandered their wealth, that they might purchase a right to indulge their rapacity. A committee of six counsellors, established in the infancy of the republic, to watch the execution of the laws, and whose offices were held at pleasure, became entrusted with the power of naming the mem bers of the grand council, by which this committee itself was ap pointed.
Its number was augmented by sixteen senators, chosen in. Ils poss6doient d abord leur pouvoir collect! Les de Wattevilles, et les Steiguers, y remplissent une trentaine de places. Le commerce interess6 de bienfaits, ou Ton passe dans le petit conseii par les suffrages de ses parens, pour faire entrer de nouveaux parens dans le grand conseii, a deja rduit le nombre des families qui siegent dans eelui-ci, a environ quatre-vingt. Ces maisons souveraines ont un egal mepris pour ceux que le droit naturel auroitdu rendre leurs concitoyens, et pour ceux qui le sont par la constitution de F6tat.
II manque meme aux premiers une ressource que les monarques les plus absolus n ont pas ose oter a leurs in the manner most favourable to the designs of faction. They exercised their power at first collectively, but by degrees they came to understand that their particular interests would be better promoted by each naming his son, son-in-law, or kinsman.
The powerful families which then commanded the senate, still rule it at present. Thirty places are fitted by the Wattevilles and Steiguers. This selfish traffic, by which the members of the little council are elected by the great council, consisting of their own relations, that they may name other relations to seats in the great council, has reduced the number of families, which have a right to sit in the latter, to nearly fourscore.
These princely families look down with equal contempt on those who are their fellow-citizens by the law of nature, and those who were ren dered such by the constitution of their country. The former class is deprived of a resource which the most absolute princes have seldom.
Prive s d armes, ils ne doivent leur pouvoir qu a leur probit6, et a leur Eloquence. Est il tonnant que ceux, qui n ont que cette instrument, s appliquent le plus a le cultiver? Quelles lecons pour les rqis, que les remontrances du Parlement de Paris! Quels seldom ventured to wrest from their subjects; I mean those courts ofjustice acknowledged by the prince, and revered by the people, as the organs of public opinion, and the depositories of the laws. The commands of the sovereign are obeyed with cheerfulness only when their propriety is confirmed by the approbation of those tribunals, whose members it has been found difficult either to de ceive, to seduce, or to intimidate.
Their resistance to oppres sion is respectful, but firm; and in exerting it, they display that warmth of eloquence with which reason and liberty inspire good citizens. In the members of those peaceful tribunals, such qua lities appear in their greatest lustre. Destitute of arms, their whole strength lies in their talents and their probity.
What noble lessons to kings have been given by the parliament of Paris! Frappe par un tribunal de cette espece, le monarque ne peut me"connoltre les g6missemens de la patrie. Les citoyens y apprennent qu ils ont une patrie ; ils s attachent a 1 aimer, a tudier ses loix, a se former a toutes les vertus publiques. Composes de la noblesse, du clerge, et des depute s des villes princi pales, ils s assembloient tons les ans a Moudon. C 6toit le conseil perpetuel du prince. Sans leur consentement, il ne pouvoit, ni faire de nouvelles loix, ni etablir de nouveaux impots.
Monarchs must hear the groans of their people, when such respectable bodies of men are their organs. The people too learn that they have a country, which they will begin to love, to study its laws, and to form themselves to public virtues. These virtues ripen silently ; they are exerted when an opportunity of fers ; and sometimes they will make an opportunity for their own exhibition.
In the Pais de Vaud, which was equally respectable under the Kings of Burgundy and the Dukes of Savoy, the states formed such a tribunal. They were composed of the nobility, clergy, and deputies from the principal cities, which annually as sembled at Moudon, and formed the perpetual council of the prince, without whose consent he could neither enact new laws, nor impose new taxes.
Were I on the spot, 1 could prove the existence of those rights by the most authentic records. At a distance. Tout 61oign quej en suis, je ne crains pas d appeller a leur tmoignage. II me reste toujours une preuve moins sensible pour le peuple, mais aussi decisive pour les gens de lettres : c est 1 analogie.
Les Barbares du cinquieme siecle jetterent par toute 1 Europe, les racines de ce gouvernement que Charlemagne etablit dans les Pays Bas, la France, 1 Italie, la Suisse, et 1 Allemagne. Quelques eVenemens, les degr6s, et les terns on les arrierefiefs se formerent des fiefs, oil le clerg6 acquit des terres seigneuriales, ou les villes acheterent leurs affranchissemens, y apporterent de 16geres differences.
Mais le fond de cette constitution est demeur6 dans toutes les revolutions, et rien de plus libre que ce fonds. Je vous entends, mon ami, qui m interrompez. The Barbarians, who overflowed Europe in the fifth cen tury, every where laid the foundation of that form of government which Charlemagne established in the Low Countries, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany.
The different modes of tenure which were at different times introduced, the various degrees of dependance which one fief came to have on another, the acquisi tions of lordships by the clergy, and the purchase of franchises by cities ; all these circumstances occasioned but slight differences in the ground-work of the constitution, which remained unalterably founded on a firm basis of liberty. The states, their members, and their rights were invariably maintained ; remaining uniformly the same at all times, and in all places.
I think that I hear you, my friend, interrupting me. JfJitherto, you. En convenant pour un mo ment- de votrc bonheur, cle qui le tenez vous? Vous n osez pas le dire. C est done du prince? Les Romains en devoient un plus grand a Titus. Us etoient cependant de vilsesclaves. Brutus vous auroit appris que, dans un tat despotique, le prince peut quelquefois vouloir de bien : mais que dans les tats libres, il ne peut que you say, I have listened to you with patience; but what is your conclusion from this picture of our government?
Whatever de fects there may be in its principles, we have experienced its salu tary consequences ; and the states and assemblies, which you so much commend, will not easily make us abolish our ancient ma gistracies, in order to try innovations. It is time, Sir, to pause; I spoke to you as became a freeman, and you answer me in the language of slavery. Let us admit for a moment your prosperity ; to whom do you owe it? You will not answer, to the constitution.
It is due then to your rulers. The Romans owed a prosperity yet greater to Titus ; but still remained the basest of slaves. Brutus would have taught you that a despot may sometimes choose to promote the public hap piness; but that the magistrates of a free people can have no other ish.
Elle est lie avec les loix qui contiennent galement ces mmes passions dans le souverain et dans le paysan. Mais malheureusement on ne trouve que trop de choses a reprendre dans votre administration politique. Je vais dtailler des fautes, des ngligences, des oppressions. Vous vous rcrierez sur ma malignit6, mais en secret votre esprit grossira le catalogue de cent articles que j aurai ou ignores ou oublies.
II est du devoir du souverain de faire jouir son peuple de tous les avantages de la socie te civile. Des guerres entreprises pour sa defense, Ten dtourneront quelquefois ; mais des que le calme, renait dans ses etats, des 6tablissemens utiles, et de sages wish. The advantages actually enjoyed by a citizen and a slave may be the same; but those of the latter are precarious, having no other foundation than the changeable passions of men; whereas those of the former are secure, being solidly supported on those laws which curb guilty passions in the prince as well as in the peasant.
But unfortunately too many faults may be found in your public administration. I shall give you the black list of omissions and oppressions, which, notwithstanding that you will exclaim against my malignity, your own memory will augment by an hundred articles, which I may be either ignorant of, or forget to mention. It is the duty of a sovereign to procure for his people all the hap piness of which their condition is susceptible. His public spirited exertions may be suspended by the exigencies of defensive war ; but as soon as peace is restored, he will be continually and use fully.
Sur ces principes jugeons le s6nat de Berne. Quand je considere ce qu etoient alors la France, 1 Angleterre, la Hollande, ou 1 Allemagne, j ai de la peine a me persuader qu elles 6toient les mmes pays que ceux qui por tent aujourd hui ces noms. La perspective du Pays de Vaud n est point fully occupied with the interests of religion, laws, morals, sciences, police, commerce, and agriculture. Let us try the merits of the senate of Berne by these maxims.
The members of this senate have been masters of the Pai s de Vaud since the year one thou sand five hundred and thirty-six. When we consider the de plorable condition in those days of France, England, Holland, and Germany, we can scarcely imagine that they were the same countries with those respectively known at present by the same names. Their barbarism has been civilized, their igno rance enlightened, their poverty enriched ; their deserts have become cities, and their forests now wave with yellow har vests.
These wonders have been effected by their princes and ministers : a Henry the Fourth, a Sully, a Colbert, an Eliza beth, a de Witt, and a Frederick William. The comparative condition of the Pai s de Vaud at those two remote zeras, does riot present. Les arts languissent, faute de ces recompenses que le prince seul pent donner; nul commerce, nulles manufactures, nuls projets utiles pour le pays ; un engourdissement general qui regne partout.
Cependant les princes dont je viens de parler n avx ient que des momens pour ces objets, ou les Bernois ont eu des siecles. Que n auroient ils pas fait, ces grands hommes, rarement tranquilles sur le tr6ne, si pendant deux cens douze ans, ils n eussent eu que des voisins pacifiques, et des peuples soumis? Je m en rapporte a vous mme. Indiquez moi quelque etablissement vraiment utile que vous deviez au souverain. There the arts still languish, for want of those encouragements which princes only can bestow : the country is still destitute of commerce and manufactures: we hear not of any projects for promoting the public prosperity : we see nothing but the marks of an universal lethargy.
Yet the princes above mentioned had but moments for executing their great designs; the senators of Berne have had ages. What bene fits might not those patriotic kings have conferred on their sub jects, if, instead of having their thrones continually shaken by war and sedition, they hud enjoyed during two centuries the advan tage of having loyal subjects and pacific neighbours?
I appeal to yourself; point out a single useful establishment which the Pais de Vaud owes to the sovereignty of Berne : but do not tell me of the academy of Lausanne, founded on motives of religion during the zeal of reformation, but since totally neglected, though a yoL, ii. Non ce n est point une politique peu e"claire"e qui fait agir vos maltres. Je connois trop leur habilete".
Mais un monarque aime egalement tous ses sujets. Les citoyens d une vdlle capitale voyent au contraire d un ceil jaloux Tagrandissement des provinces. Si elles s elevent, disent ils, nous tombons. Nos eg-ales pour les lumieres et les richesses, elles voudroient bient6t 1 etre en pouvoir. Rappellez vous Fan La mauvaise politique de Louis XIV. Your masters err not through ignorance.
They are not defi cient, I know, in political abilities. But while a prince treats with impartial bounty all his subjects, the citizens of an aristocratical capital are apt to behold with jealousy the improvement of the provinces. Their elevation, they think, must pave the way for their own downfal; and if they become their equals in point of knowledge and riches, they will soon be tempted, they imagine, to aspire at an equality with themselves in power.
Recal to me mory the year one thousand six hundred and eighty-five; when the wretched policy of Louis the Fourteenth drove from their country the most industrious portion of his subjects, many of whom sought refuge in the Pai s de Vaud; a neighbouring district, and speaking their own language.
They requested only an asy lum, the benefit of which they would richly have repaid by the wealth. Mais ici la politique partiale des Bernois s e pouvanta. Si nous les laissons confondus parmi nos sujets, nos sujets recueilleront le fruit de leur Industrie. Ces exile s, las d essuyer des refus, ou ils devoient s attendre a des prieres, passerent en Hollande, en Prusse, et en Aiigieterre, ou les souverains savoient mieux profiter de cette occasion unique.
But the narrow policy of Berne took the alarm. But is it fit that mortals should be raised to the rank of gods? A part of them indeed remained in the Pai s de Vaud, but the c 2 poorest. A peine ces malheureux commencoient ils a oublier leurs souffrances pass6es que Inexperience leur fit sentir, que pour fuir les persecutions, il faut fuir les hommes. These unhappy fugitives had no sooner begun to forget their past sufferings, than they learned by fatal experience that, in order to avoid persecution, it was necessary to fly from the society of men.
The sovereigns of the country in which they had settled had imbibed the severe system of Calvin, a stern theologian, who loved liberty too well, to endure that Christians should wear any other chains than those imposed by himself. His near conformity in opinion with a celebrated German philosopher, interested the honour of the German name in supporting his doctrines. But in the Pais de Vaud the asperity of religious opinions had softened with the improvement of society.
It became necessary, therefore, to send thither formulas and inquisitors, designed to make as many hypocrites as possible, not indeed by fire and sword, but by threats and deposition from office. Je veux bien que le magistral ne distribue les recompenses du public, qu a ceux qui enseignent la religion du public.
Je ne lui d6fends pas meme de contenir dans le silence ces novateurs trop hardis qui voudroient eclairer le peuple sur cqrtains objets oil J erreur fait son bonheur. Mais la persecution cessa. Qui la fit cesser? Un sentiment de honte? Encore mme In supporting the rights of man, I would not carry too far the maxims of toleration.
It is just that public rewards should be bestowed only on those who teach the religion of the public; and those bold innovators, who would impart a dangerous light to the people, may very properly be restrained by the arm pf the magis trates. But it surely is absurd, that the sovereign should inter,fere in theological minutiae, and take part warmly in questions which are incapable of being decided.
It is particularly unjust, that he should impose confessions of faith on old ministers, who wish to avoid disputation ; leaving them the miserable alternative of falsehood or beggary. But this persecution has now ceased. What put an end to it? It was not shame, nor the tears of the people, but the boldness of Davel, that meritorious enthusiast.
Je viens, non pas d 6puiser, mais d indiquer quelques deTauts qui se trouvent dans votre puis sance legislative. Passons a I executrice. Celleci est la force publique, comme Fautre est la volont publique. Mais un seul corps, un seul homme, pent deliberer et decider pour toute une nation.
II ne pent tout seul agir pour elle. L administration politique, composed d un nombre infini de branches, vent qu un grand nombre d officiers, sounds les uns aux autres, s employent a faire jouer la machine a laquelje le maitre ne peut que donner le mouvement general. Les honneurs, Even to the present day, a secret inquisition still reigns at Lau sanne; where the names of Arminian and Socinian are often men tioned in the letters written by very honest people to their patrons of Berne ; and offices are often given or withheld according to the reports made of the religious tenets of the candidates.
Having made these strictures on your legislature, which by no means exhaust the subject, I proceed to consider the defects of your executive power; which is the public force, as the legislature ought to be the public will. But a single council, or a single man, may deliberate and resolve for a whole nation ; the execu tive power, on the contrary, requires the exertions of many : as it is composed of a great variety of branches, many officers, subor dinate one to the other, must actuate the different parts of the machine, to which the chief magistrate can only communicate the first.
Les fardeaux leur sont communs a tous, les recompenses doivent l tre aussi. Un gouvernement monarchique satisfait ais6ment a ces justes pretensions. A Pexception de quelques courtisans, qui approcherit la personne du prince d assez pres, pour substituer la flatterie aux services, tous ses sujets lui sont 6gaux. Des qu un homme a du merite, ou, si Ton vent de la faveur, on ne lui demande point s il est Normand ou Provencal.
The honours and emoluments legally attached to such offices, ought to be open to all those citizens who are properly qualified for discharging them. Each individual, as he bears a share of the public burdens, is entitled also to a share of the public rewards. This just arrangement is easily maintained in monarchies ; where, with the exception of a few courtiers, who, by being continually about the prince s person, have an opportunity of substituting flattery instead of real services, all the inhabitants of the kingdom are treated with comparative equity.
In France, provided a man has court-favour or merit, the question is never asked whether he comes from Provence or Normandy. Le sujet se voit condamne par sa naissance a ramper dans une honteuse obscurite". Si je parlois de faire participer les sujets aux Bailliages, les Bernois crieroient au sacrilege ; les Bailliages sont le patrimoine de Tetat, et nous sommes 1 etat. II est vrai qu on vous laisse les Lieutenances Baillivales ; mais vous savez assez qu on y mle certaines stipulations, de faeon que, si le nouveau magistrat ne vit pas quelque terns, sa famille perd au marches Privfe lument.
In the canton of Berne talents and information are not of the smallest use to any one who is not born in the capital ; and in another sense they are useless to those born there ; because they must make their way without them. Their subjects in the Pai s de Vaud are condemned, by the circumstances of their birth, to a condition of shameful obscurity.
They naturally become, there fore, a prey to despair ; and neglecting to cultivate talents which they can never enjoy an opportunity to display, those who had Capacities for becoming great men are contented with making themselves agreeable companions. Should I propose that the subjects obtained a right to hold the lucrative employments of Baillis, or governors of districts, tke aristocraticai families of Berne would think me guilty of a crime little less than sacrilege. Mais on n a pas manque de leur rendre cette carriere des plus epincuses, et de leur y fermer Faeces des grades un pen elev6s.
Je ne dirai rien du brillant service de France. Ne parlons que du service des EtatsG6n6raux, ser vice plus utile que riant, on Ton s ennuye et s enrichit. Par le trait6 de , le Canton de Berne accorda vingt quatre cojnpagnies a leurs Hautes Puissances, et promit de permettre qu on en fit toujours des recrues dans leurs 6tats.
Seize compagnies 6toient destinees aux Bernois, et les souverains What encouragement is then left for the gentlemen of the Pai s de Vaud? At the Abbaye she met the young nobleman who had betrayed her. Hesitating for a moment at this dramatic rencon- tre, apparently vacillating between vengeance and mercy, massa- cre and reprieve, she plunged her sabre into his breast.
The purpose of her life was fulfilled at the age of thirty-two. Her reason was not destined long to survive this early accomplish- ment of what she had made the object and end of existence. Upon the capture of the Bastille, Theroigne had been deputed to deliver the keys of the fortress to a member of the munici- pality, named Brissot. An earnest friendship sprang up between the two, which continued even when the latter became leader of the moderate party. He was one day assailed in the garden of the Tuileries by a band of the "Furies de Guillotine.
She lost consciousness, and finally reason. She disappeared from public life, and, when again heard of, was an inmate of a mad-house. Olympe de Grouges, a courtesan in her youth, an author in her maturer years, possessing an ardent imagination, an impetuous temper, a rapid and burning eloquence, and an intrepid spirit, embraced with enthusiasm the principles of the Revolution. She became the most conspicuous and brilliant political adventurer of her sex. It was she who proposed the establishment of female clubs, that women might take part in public debate and influence the action of government ; and she herself was the first woman to harangue an auditory of citoyennes.
She was not a dema- gogue nor a fanatic, for she deprecated and deplored intestine commotion or bloodshed. The excesses of the Revolution shocked her, and induced in her the most contradictory fluctuations and reactions of opinion.
She regretted the throne while she preached the Republic : she shed tears over the captive king while her lips still dallied with the advancing Revolution. When it became apparent that Louis Capet, the last of the Bourbons, suffering for errors of which he was not the author, and held responsible for calamities he could not avert, must appear like a criminal at the bar of the Convention, her democracy aban- doned her, and she wept over the degradation of her legitimate king.
She wrote to the President of the Convention, proposing to associate herself with Malesherbes in the defense of the mon- arch. Louis deserves exile, but not death. Rome won immor- tality by the exile of its king : England has earned infamy by the murder of Charles I.
She replied to their taunts by pamphlets unequalled by anything in the language for their energetic, yet crude eloquence. She thus apostrophized Robespierre : " Thou thinkest thyself a Cato, Robespierre ; but thou art nought but Cato's caricature. Thou livest in the hope of making thyself a place among memorable usurpers. Thy reason, caressed by the example of Cromwell, is subjugated by that of Mahomet. Oh, Maximilien I Maximilien!
Thou proclaimest peace to the world, and wagest war against the human race. Thou callest thyself the sole author of the Rev- olution, but thou art nothing but its eternal opprobrium and its lasting execration. Thy breath taints the air, and the hairs of thy head can hardly number the crimes of thy hand. When the executioner cut off her hair, she asked for a looking- glass.
But the faculties that Heaven bestowed to be employed with earnest purpose and for enduring benefit, she frittered away in the consuming excitements of a dissolute life, in a futile pursuit of literature, and in a brilliant but un- steady political career. With the eloquence of Mirabeau, the wit of Talleyrand, and the courage of Bayard, she has left posterity little to admire, and nothing to imitate.
Her memoirs, written in prison at the close of her life and at the age of thirty-seven, supply the best existing account of her career. These are dated at Ste. Pelagie, , and commence as follows : "Daughter of an artist, wife of a philosopher, who when a minister of state remained a man of virtue ; now a prisoner, destined perhaps to a violent and unexpected death — I have known happiness and adversity: I have learned what glory is, and have suffered injustice.
Born in an humble condition, but of respectable parents, I passed my youth in the bosom of the arts and amidst the delights of study, knowing no superiority but that of merit, and no grandeur but that of virtue. She under- stood astronomy and algebra, and was the best dancer among the young society she was accustomed to meet ; and again, quitting her austere studies and her social gaieties, could skim the pot and prepare the meals of the family.
At the age of eight, a book was placed in her hands, which formed her character and decided her fate. This was Plutarch's Lives of illustrious Greeks and Ro- mans. It became her bosom companion ; she carried it to church with her and slept with it under her pillow. At fourteen she wept that her birth had not made her a Spartan. Greece and Italy filled her mind and absorbed her thoughts : she lived in an ideal repubUc, enjoying wise laws, pure morals, secure institu- tions : her watchwords were glory, liberty and country.
She con- trasted the weak and dissolute men of her epoch with the phi- losophers, sages and heroes, with whom she loved, in imagina- tion, to associate. From the age of seventeen to twenty, she received numerous offers of marriage, from persons in her own rank in life, but she felt that none but a man of education could satisfy the ideas she had formed.
At this period her father entered into speculation and neglected his profession : he lost his property, and at the same time his wife. Manon was overwhelmed with grief, and as she her- self says, " was for a long time a burden to myself and to others. Plutarch disposed me to repubhcanism : he inspired me with a true enthusiasm for public virtue and freedom.
Rousseau showed me domestic happiness and the ineffable felicity I was ca- pable of enjoying. Though advised to pubhsh her writings, she declined, and thus explains her refusal: "My chief object was my own happiness, and I never knew the public inter- fere with this for any one without spoiling it. Roland, a laborious writer and philosopher, a man of known probity and simplicity of character, sought her acquaintance.
He was not calculated to make a favorable im- pression upon a young woman. He was formal in his manners, careless in his dress, and advanced in life. He waited five years before declaring to Manon the attachment he felt for her. His avowal did not displease her, though she rejected the offer.
She felt that the family of Eoland, which, though not noble, had ac- quired official dignity, would oppose an alliance with a person of humble birth. Roland persisted, and being referred by Manon to her father, was definitively refused. Phihpon's affairs now became extremely embarrassed, and Manon, wishing to secure her own independence, purchased an annuity of six hundred francs, with which she obtained a room at a convent, where she hved, by dint of extreme economy.
In six months Roland again presented himself as a suitor, and, after some dehberation on Manon's part, was accepted. She says, in her memoirs, "if marriage was, as I thought, an austere union, in which the woman usually burdens herself with the hap- piness of two individuals, it seemed better that I should exert my abilities and my courage in so honorable a task, than in the solitude in which I lived. They travelled together in England and Switzerland, and finally settled in Lyons, where Roland became inspector of the manufactories.
The revolution of disturbed this peaceful existence. Madame Roland welcomed this event with joy. Her house soon became the rendezvous of the Girondins, and she obtained great influence in their councils, through her talents, beauty and en- thusiasm. Her husband yielded insensibly to her superior ascend- ency.
She wrote much for him, and inspired him with ardor and energy, though she sedulously avoided all appearance of exerting the influence she possessed. This choice fell upon Roland, and was at once justified by his assiduity, his knowledge, zeal and probity. But the simplicity of his costume and the severity of his manners shocked the court, and the unvarnished truth of his advice annoyed the king and his council. Being alone in opinion in the cabinet, upon a certain measure, he presented an individual remonstrance to the king.
This was written, at a single sitting, by his wife : it was couched in daring, even menacing language. It exists as a remarkable monument of the times, and of the genius of her who wrote it. Roland was dismissed from office the next day. The appearance of Madame Roland at this period is thus described: "Her eyes, hair and face were of remarkable beauty; her delicate complexion had a freshness and color which, joined to her reserved yet ingenuous appearance, imparted to her a singular air of youth.
She spoke well and without affectation : wit, good sense, propriety of expression, keen reasoning, natural grace, all flowing without efi'ort from her rosy lips. Her hus- band resembled a Quaker, and she looked like his daughter. Her child flitted about her with ringlets down to her waist. Her mind was excited, but her heart remained gentle. Although the mon- archy was not yet overturned, she did not conceal the fact that symptoms of anarchy began to appear, and she declared herself ready to resist them unto death.
I remember the resolute tone in which she announced herself as prepared, if need be, to place her head upon the block. He maintained a long struggle with the anarchists who were daily gaining strength in the Con- vention, and who had become all-powerful with the mob. Madame Roland thus wrote to a friend upon the state of affairs at Paris : "Danton is the chief: Robespierre is his puppet: Marat holds his torch and dagger. This ferocious tribune is supreme, and we are its slaves till we shall become its victims.
You are aware of my enthusiasm for the Revolution : well, I am ashamed of it ; it is deformed by monsters, and has become hideous. It is de- grading to remain, but we are not allowed to leave the city ; they shut us up to murder us when occasion serves. On the overthrow of the Girondins, on the 31st of May, Madame Roland was arrested, by order of the Convention ; her husband had al- ready left the city, and was in a place of safety.
She was taken to the prison of the Abbaye, through streets crowded with rioters, to whom her moderation rendered her odious. She at once determined to occupy her hours of captivity in writing the history of her times, and in sketching the portraits of the distinguished men with whom she had been thrown in con- tact.
She obtained a few books, her admired Plutarch being among the number. She had hardly bent herself to her task, however, before she was transferred to another prison ; the jail- ers practising upon her the odious deception of announcing to her that she was at liberty, and under pretext of escorting her home, conveying her to Ste. She was here placed in the same building with the most hardened criminals, having no other associates in the apartment she occupied, than women of dissolute and abandoned life.
Their situation excited her pity, and she M:. She had always practised benevolence according to her means, and during the ministry of her husband, had set apart one thousand francs a month for that purpose.
She entrusted her writings to two friends, one of whom was arrested ; during his captivity the package was discovered and burned. The other concealed his portion of the desit for eight months, in the hollow of a rock in the forest of Montmo- rency ; these paper's still exist.
The loss of the othei-s was com- municated to Madame Roland in time for her, by a new effort of application, to make it good. In one of her letters written about this period, she says, "All is over : you know the affection which the English call heart-break : I am hopelessly attacked, and I care not to stay its effects.
She gives her motives for the project in a paper entitled "Last Thoughts. Moreover, by perishing before her trial and condemnation, her property would descend to her daughter, whereas a sentence by the Revolutionary Tribunal in- volved of necessity the confiscation of all her possessions.
Her first resolve was to allow herself to starve, but it was evident the jailer would discover and oppose the attempt. The name of the artist is not known. This friend dissuaded her from the step ; considering it best that she should fasten the crime of her death upon the Tribunal, and feeling that she owed a sacrifice to her cause and an example to her friends.
Madame Roland re- flected, and decided to accept the scaffold, "not with the transport of an enthusiast who seeks for martyrdom, but with the stern resolution of a stoic who accomplishes a duty. Chauveau de Lagarde, but lately the advocate of Charlotte Corday, requested permission to defend her.
He saw her several times at the Conciergerie, and on the 9th, in the evening, was admitted to communicate to her his plan of defense. This she discussed with him, and at eleven o'clock, as he rose to take his leave, she drew a ring from her fin- ger, and gave it to him, saying, "To assume my cause, would be endangering yourself without benefiting me.
Let me not have to deplore the death of an upright man! Do not come to the tribunal ; I shall disavow you, should you do so. Accept this ring, the only expression of my gratitude that I can offer. To- morrow I shall be no more! This plea, eloquent and logical, is still in existence, though it was not delivered. She was not allowed to speak at her trial, and was condemned to death, for complicity with the Girondins.
She was dressed in white, this attire symbolizing, as she said, the purity of her soul. Associated with Madame Roland, in the last terrible scene, was a man whose resignation was not equal to hers. She devoted herself, on the way to the scaffold, to an effort to revive his cour- age. It was her privilege to die first, but, unwilling to expose him to the horror of witnessing her execution, she renounced it in his favor. As he hesitated to accept, she said, "What, do you refuse a woman her last request?
Then turning to the statue of Liberty, she pronounced these me- morable words: "0 Liberty, how many crimes are committed in thy name! Her form was elegant, her movements were graceful and natural ; her expres- sion was sweet, her smile was winning : her attitude was that of candor and serenity : her large black eyes, sparkling with viva- city, arched with brows of the same dark chestnut as her hair, reflected by their constant changes the passing emotions of her heai't.
Endowed with a man's character, tempered by a woman's graces : with a brilliant and flexible wit : with a sonorous and pli- ant voice : possessing infinite power of pleasing in conversation, and an eloquence whose source was in her soul : a pupil of Rous- seau and Plutarch, and enthusiastically devoted to liberty, she subjugated her husband, at the same time sustaining him by her inspirations : and she controlled her friends of the Gironde by her irresistible ascendency.
She was, as it were, a chaste Aspasia, but without a Pericles. Their lives, as they have been thus briefly sketched, shed sufficient light, for our pur- pose, upon the mental and moral condition of the country. The succeeding epoch demands a more intimate and detailed analysis, for it was the disorder and the social anarchy of this period which rendered Bonaparte's usurpation possible, not to say desirable and beneficial.
Francaise, iii. It was succeeded by a form of government imitated from that of the United States, the " Council of Ancients " representing the Senate, and the "Council of Five Hundred" constituting the popular branch. The Executive power was lodged in the hands of five Directors, composing what was called the Di- rectory.
The principal member of this joint executive was Paul Jean Francois Barras, legislator and voluptuary. Society, under the Directory, and during the four years of its tenure of power, was little better than a masquerade. It was an inversion, yet a reminiscence, of the society which existed jjrevious to the late episode of anarchy.
The Terror had made a new dis- tribution of wealth, and had taken power from those in whose hands education and tradition had placed it, to entrust it to those whom hazard had enriched, and whom the current had swept on to fortune.
It had perverted morals and denounced religion : it had confounded ranks and destroyed caste ; it had ceased to pay hom- age to worth or respect to age ; it had transferred the scene of family gatherings and of social festivity, from the private house to the public garden : society and fashion danced in the open air, THE LAW OF DIVORCE.
Punning had superseded conversation ; the sexes were reversed, and women pursued and captured men. JSTo fruit was forbidden, and little was stolen, for there was no sin and no secrecy. Decency was so far banished, propriety so far violated, dui'ing this foul interregnum, famiHes were so dispersed, relations of friendship and acquaint- ance so relaxed, that marriage ceased to be a social institution : in this pell-mell of disorder and havoc of anarchy, neither men nor women had the time or the opportunity to seek for those condi- tions of similar taste and spirit which are essential to a congenial union.
Citizen Liardot opened a "husband and wife office," where he kept a register of names and fortunes, and published a semi-weekly "Indicator. The Law of Divorce had fastened upon the country this deep social stain. What was before solemn and indissoluble, was now precarious and transitory. It became easier to put asunder than to join. Libertinism was the pet child of the law, and wanton- ness the privileged daughter of the code. The marriage cere- mony was styled by Sophie Arnould, and in one of the satirical publications of the time, the Sacrament of Adultery.
People divorced after a week's connection, so that marriage became a lease, and separation a clause in the contract, as pithy as a postscript. They mari-y in order to divorce ; and they unmarry to get married again. At the promenade, those who were married yesterday meet, already I Paris, Feb. They have had time to forget, for they bow as to indifferent acquaintances.
A countess divorces, and marries her footman. Soldiers, on going into winter quar- ters, marry for the dead season. Delville exclaims at the tri- bune, ' This is a traffic in human flesh that you have introduced into France! The Council of Five Hundred receives the petition of a bereaved husband, who has lost two wives, who were sisters, and now de- sires to marry their mother. Out of 5, divorces in fifteen months, 3, were applied for by the gentler sex ; and out of 1, repudiations for bad temper, were the cases of husbands who had ceased to be acceptable to their wives.
After the profanation of marriage came the blasphemy of death : the society that had ceased to reverence woman now for- got to bury the dead. Death was no longer a warning, for hfe was no longer a probation : death was the end, because life was the whole. The reign of Terror had made life sweet, inasmuch as it made it short : no institution can compare with the guillo- tine, in rendering existence material, and making the present paramount. So that only those called upon to die heard the summons with dismay : those they left behind had no time to waste in regret, no affections to perpetuate by remembrance.
Bodies thus delivered over to impious desecration were often warm, and, in more instances than one, were not in- animate. The carriers laid their burden down at the doors of the taverns, and resuming it after repose, tottered, unsteady with Hquor, to the mouth of the common grave. N"o one was there to protest against the sacrilege, for even a father's corpse went unattended by his children, and a sister's hardly- lifeless form was thrust away to the gentle charities of a ticket- porter.
The municipahty were forced to publish a notification to the effect that "it was distressed to see with what barbarous in- difference were treated by the survivors the remains of persons who should have been dear to them," and to decree that "an offi- cer of pohce, with crape about his hat, should follow each coffin to the grave. The young, whom five years of fasting and deprivation had made clamorous and impatient, the middle-aged, who turned with horror from the barbarities of the present, and recalled with delight the amiable sociabilities of the jsast, were impelled, the for- mer by nascent passions claiming the gratification due to their age, the latter by the revival of habit and the promptings of me- mory, into a whirl of turbulent and fantastic excitements.
Un- able to reconstitute society, with its system of checks, of control and of compensations, they restored only its pleasures, its frivoli- ties and its vices. The Rejjublic had begun to create disgust, with its hard, anti-social requisitions, its Spartan pretences and its re- pulsive practices.
The reaction was profound and lasting. Plea- sure was unsatisfactory, unless it was public and ostentatious : love undesirable, unless gross and scandalous ; debauch and riot were unattractive, unless spiced with personal encounters and brutal sensuality.
The smouldering energies, the smothered and suppressed vitality of la Jeune Prance, broke into a violent and consuming flame, and the beauty, and strength, and emotion, and sentiment, that had been gathered during the Revolution and the Terror, were now spent with lavish and jorodigal hands. The society that aspu-ed to elegance secured admissions by subscription ; visitors without pretension paid as they went. Orphans danced to forget the guillotine ; lovers, bereaved, pirouetted to drown the memory of the scaffold.
Tears were quickly dried during this season of oblivion, and oaths that should have been eternal, vows registered in heaven, were as carelessly recalled or disregarded. The bacchanal became epi- demic, and soon all France fell into the measure, and danced an immense and frantic rigadoon.
The most famous and most fashionably attended of the danc- ing gardens were Tivoh and Frascati, both bearing Italian names, and in then- embellishments and scenery, being souvenirs of the environs of Rome. The dances, composed with mathematical precision, were executed on the part of the gentlemen with stu- died vehemence of body and hmb, and on the part of the ladies, with the blandishments of languor, attitude and coquetry.
Each figure ended with a tableau — in which the spectacle of arms en- twined, of gauze conveniently indiscreet, of eyes that asked and other eyes that answered, of lips that trembled with invitation or whispered encouragement or smiled consent, in an atmosphere of music and moonlight, was one that, more than any other illus- tration of national manners, has shocked history and offended posterity. Matter being now supreme, bodily strength, the perfection of form and the cultivation of the hmbs, became objects of deep con- sideration.
The dangers of the streets and the necessities of de- fense had rendered a vigorous fist and a pliant staff essential. So, from the perversion and excess that marked the epoch, force soon came to take precedence of intellect, and muscle became a substitute for brains. Tliey practised the arts of the Gymnasium and revived the Olympic Games.
They aimed at the glory of Hercules, and their emula- tion was the emulation of Centaurs. Their ambition was to be athletic, massive, pagan ; and they spent their lives in the disci- pline of their limbs and the development of their persons. So far was partisanship carried, that the streets were unsafe and life was insecure. Combats on the highway, duels in the pubUc thorough- fares, hand to hand struggles on the brink of the fish-ponds, were of daily, nay hourly, occurrence.
The theatres were the rendez-. Even music was political, and every popular air, from the Mar- seillaise to the Qa ira, was made to breathe menace or to whisper sympathy. The police was powerless against disorder so univer- sal, and no longer sought to repress such violence as sprang from party and political rancor. Women became Amazons, then viragos, then men. They lived in the open air, racing like Atalanta, or playing truant from home like Hero.
They no longer gave suck to their infants ; herds of goats waited idly at the street corners to furnish the nourishment which mothers refused. Adieu, gentle wife and modest hearth-stone! Adieu, dear providence of home! Adieu, the careful housekeeper whose heart was- domestic and whose children sat upon her knees! Women now require the street. They carry leather-handled whips. This was the period of the depreciation of money, with the fearful miseries and calamities it entailed.
Assignats were printed by milhons of reams, and on certain days the amount manufac- tured reached the sum of one hundred milhons of francs. The government was on the verge of bankruptcy, if the paper-mills gave out. The dejDreciation was called the Cascade of Discredit.
Prices became absurd, incredible : ninety-eight francs for a pound of candles : one hundred and fifty francs for a handkerchief : four hundred francs for a straw hat : eight hundred for a cravat : three thousand francs for five quiU pens : four thousand francs for a cord of wood : and five thousand francs for two dozen crash tow- els.
A woman that cried radishes earned a thousand francs, in assignats, in one day : and the journeyman who had worked an hour, was paid by a bunch of assignats bigger than his two fists. Women were seen struggling witli dogs in the mud at night for the possession of a half-gnawed bone ; a man died in a pubhc square, and in his mouth were found blades of grass and stems of plants, at which, in the agonies of starvation, he had snatched.
Water was as dear as wine : horseflesh took the place of beef. While France was languishing under the regime of paper money, foreign speculators — their governments possessing a me- tallic currency — swooped down upon the merchantable riches of the country, with that precision of poise and certainty of capture which characterizes specie as distinguished from paper, and cash as compared with credit.
The Germans and Dutch bought and exported the yield of the finer wines ; the Russians, not yet em- barrassed by the drain of war, purchased the family diamonds which had escaped the spohations of the Terror. The English ob- tained, and transported across the channel, choice collections of medals, engravings, paintings and books.
Enormous and dazzling fortunes were made, in the midst of this penury of the nation and exhaustion of the exchequer, by stockjobbers and money brokers. The Bourse controlled the Di- rectory. It fixed the daily value of the specie currency of France ; it appointed daily, for the morrow, the rate of exchange between the louis d'or and the assignat.
Conseur des Journaux, The value of the louis was ticketed on the veal pies in the windows of the pastry cooks ; and the passer-by who had read the figure 1, at noon, might read 1, an hour later. Clerks, who but lately arrived in rags from some distant province, now possessed palates so pampered and tastes so fastidious, that their tables must be spread with golden pheasants, with lake trout, and with pineapples from the tropics ; they were drawn through the streets by twelve horses ; and they paid two million francs for a waistcoat.
They held lotteries in which every ticket won ; they gave balls in which the company was so choice and parvenu, that a lady of the late royal household, who asked for an invitation, could only be gratified with a " billet d'escalier " — a ticket to stand upon the staircase! They were so lavish of pin- money to their wives, that the latter would risk a million upon the turn of an ace.
They had literary taste, too, and would ex- tend their patronage to poets that were an-hungered: "their opulence was won to smiles by the verses of some Virgil who had fasted, or of some Horace at half price. Equipages and elegantly dressed gentlemen are reap- pearing : they only recollect as a long dream, that they have ever ceased to shine. Libraries, historical lectures, courses of botany, chemistry, astronomy, succeed each other in rapid variety.
Every thing is accumulated in this country to distract and embellish life ; the public tears itself violently from its reflexions : how can one look upon the dark side of things during such an application 1 Soc. Women are everywhere : at the theatres, at the promenades, at the libra- ries. In the studies of the savans, even, you will find very ele- gant ladies.
Here, the only spot upon the globe, do they deserve to hold the helm : the men are, therefore, madly in love with them ; they think of nothing but them, and only live by, through and for them. A woman needs to remain six months at Paris to learn what is her due, and what empire she may wield. Men and women, whether qualified by edu- cation and practice or not, bought, sold and exchanged ; their pockets were stufi'ed with samples, now of cambric or sewing- silk, anon of soap, rice or gunpowder.
Ground floors became bazaars ; parlors became store-rooms, bed-chambers granaries, dining-tables counters, and the fairest of hands were begrimed with charcoal, pepper, suet, coffee and oil. Persons brought up to trade sold everything except what they advertised : "the con- fectioner sold soap, the hatter sold butter, the grocer sold books, and the apothecary sold shoes. The municipality were unable to suppress or to interfere with, this disgraceful and unproductive practice.
Maurice, addressing the audience and not the charac- ters in the play, said in tones half of indignation and half of per- suasion : "Abandon, ladies, let me implore you, abandon this scandalous traffic, which devours the public substance and de- grades the human name.
Nature has bestowed upon you the talent of amiabihty and the graces of feature. Use them, I be- seech you, to embellish life and dignify society, and seek no longer to adorn commerce or to add lustre to bargain and sale. The small gains were speedily lapped up and passed into the remorseless maw of the heavier operators. The rich became richer and the poor poorer. General de Moutalembert, at the age of eighty-three, and after sixty-five years of active service, sold his furniture for food in the year V.
Bomare, the author of the Dictionary of Natural History, was reduced -to two ounces of black bread a day. Priville, the actor, lately in the annual receipt of forty thousand francs, begged and was refused admission to the Incurables : as did Balbatre the or- ganist, to whom the Duchess of Choiseul had given one hundred louis for tuning her piano. The dramatic woi'ks of Corneille, having outlived the period during which copyright upon them was due to his heirs, had fallen into the public domain : but in view of the fact that Toltaire's god-daughter, Dupuis Corneille Dangely, was in danger of starvation, the theatre Peydeau re- stored the author's ten per cent, in her favor, upon Don Juan and the Liar.
Their titles indicate their themes — themes of poverty, national 1 Son. Caricatures represented fish-women bestow- ing alms upon gentlemen of property : and fans intended for "pensioners, persons in the receipt of annuities, and who but lately enjoyed so much a year," bore an inscription composed of the inflection of a very suggestive preterit : I was, thou wast, he was : you were, they were, we all were.
During the Terror, fashion be- came democratic, and a style of costume prevailed which gave rise to the descriptive expression, the " anarchy of taste. The momentary rage for English fabrics and English styles speedily gave way to the belief that antiquity — Greek and Roman anti- quity — with some modifications to suit the chmate and the epoch, would best furnish the RepubHc's wearing apparel.
David, the painter, strengthened this conviction by his choice of antique sub- jects, and his preference either for flowing drapery or the nude flesh. A peculiar style, the Om- phale, required a train sufficiently long to allow the end to be brought back and tucked into the girdle. M'Ue Nancy was the mautuamaker for those who affected the Greek revival ; Madame Raimbaut for those who preferred the Roman. Coppe was the ton shoemaker, though shoes were now called buskins.
His price was sixty francs a pair, but purchasers could forget the cost in the consciousness that the article was " singularly fresh, eloquent and poetic. Coppe examined it, and then pronounced the following opinion, with all the solemnity of a verdict : " Madame, I'll lay my life you walked in it!
The throat and arms were covered, and the stuffs enaployed, principally silk and woollen, were too heavy and opaque for indiscreet revelations. The convenience, the relief, of loose garments, was such that it was soon thought tha,t garments still looser and lighter would be still more convenient. So robes that concealed the bosom and the arms were called robes "a, I'hy- pocrite," and all who could abandon them did so. This was the age of muslin, gossamer, tissue, filigree and gauze.
Starch was laid under interdict, and the only permissible color was pure white. The newspapers were filled with allusions, now serious and now jocose, to the prevailing taste. One published an asser- tion made by Dr. Desessarts, that "he had seen die more young ladies, since the introduction of these ' begauzed nudities,' than in the previous forty years.
Une chemise suiBt, C'est tout prolit! Those were the most successful votaries of fashion who could best drape themselves after a bas relief from Athens, or could the most nearly approach the simplicity of sculpture. The ladies in the streets were white as phantoms, and they flitted like ghosts awaiting cock- crow. The maiden and the matron were alike undistinguishable in their dress from women of bad life, except perhaps that the lat- ter were the most chaste in their selection of a model, for they adopted the costume of Iphigenia in Aulis.
Can I ever efface from my memory the image of that young lady who, in the full enjoyment of health at six o'clock in the evening, and resplendent with all the charms and graces of youth, attended, at nine, in a costume bordering upon the nude, one of those as- semblies that so resemble the saturnalia of Rome, and returned home at midnight benumbed with cold, her chest oppressed, her throat parched and hacked by a violent cough, her reason waver- ing and her blood wild with fever?
Can I ever forget how our art was powerless to relieve her, and how she expiated, in the long agonies of consumption and in a premature death, the im- prudence of having revealed what modesty should have taught her to conceal? Petersburg season. The styles of dress for gentlemen presented a singular con- trast. They are thus described by a late author : " By the side of ladies thus seeking for all the coquetry and allurements of costume, and who recommend themselves by their very indel- icacy, one would say that the men, in a spirit of sacrifice and self-immolation, desire to play the part of foils.
They offer their arms to ladies decked with ribbons, spangles, flowers, plumes, feathers and tufts ; but they themselves appear habited as Eng- lish rustics. They require the scissors of the tailor to spoil a garment after a particular manner ; and they have haberdashers of great renown to equip them in the guise of caricatures. That bottle-green coat, with pearl buttons — a coat which purposely calumniates its wearer's form, and which seems fashioned to avenge hunchbacks upon the person of an upright man — was cut by the famous Saul Heyl.
Heyl gives his customers the air of busts shrouded in bags and mounted on stilts. No one wears a proper cravat who has not about his neck an enormous muslin goitre. Professors will inform you that a cravat must caress the under lip with its upper edge, so that the head, sup- ported upon this pedestal, as it were, may produce at a distance, the effect of a Bologna sausage.
The button of the breeches must be skillfully looped at the knee, to give to the leg a dehciously tortuous and bandy aspect. They have muscles able to kill an ox ; and they appear to have a throat so delicate that a consonant would rasp it raw. They put the alphabet upon the bed of Procrustes.
The French lan- guage — so majestic with its resounding and rolling R, allyuig the noble rhythm of the Latin with the musical pomp of modern Itahan — is nothing more than a warble. Lisping has succeeded pronunciation. The R was banished first, and fashion now insists upon proscription after proscription. Ch is forced to yield its place to S, in order not to startle the " sarmes " of a belle, and Gr is altogether too guttural to figure in a mention of her " anzelic visase. Her votaries were well aware of their own follies and extravagance, as the descriptive names that they as- sumed, or were made to bear, plainly show.
The gentlemen of this fantastic period were styled "Incroyables," " Inimaginables ;" the ladies were "Impossibles" and " Merveilleuses. Their decrees were so stern that statesmen and diplomates were forced, from policy, to submit to them.
Talleyrand, in order to maintain relations with the society, which, for want of a bet- ter, must be considered the elegant society of the period, assumed the dress and manners of an Incroyable : his cravat he preserved and continued to wear, through all changes, for half a century, as a pledge of constancy and immovable opinions. Theresia Cabarrus — Her Marriage with M. THE name of Madame Tallien has been mentioned as one closely connected with the politics, fashion and gaieties of this epoch.
Her influence upon the period entitles her to a detailed biog- raphy. Theresia Cabarrus, only daughter of the Comte de Cabarrus, a French banker settled in Spain, and of M'Ue Galabert, to whom he was secretly married, visited Paris, at the age of sixteen, with her father, who was charged with a mission from Charles III.
Devin, Marquis de Fontenay, counsellor to the Parliament of Paris, was the most fortunate of the numerous aspirants attracted by her extraordinary Andalusian beauty, and married her. Upon her marriage she became the ornament of the society with which she was thrown in contact : Lafayette, then general- in-chief of the National Guard, was a constant visitor at her house. Upon the arrest of the Comte de Cabarrus at Madrid, in , for malversation, she said to Lafayette, " Give me your guard, general, that I may fly to the deliverance of my father.
Madame de Fontenay was unhappy with her husband : he squandered her dowry, and upon the breaking out of the Revolution, was compelled, in order to save his life, to join the emigration of the nobles : before leav- ing France, however, he restored his wife to liberty, by obtain- ing a divorce in due form. A son had been the fruit of the union. Madame de Fontenay now became an ardent and active repub- lican. She dreamed of little but the practice of civic virtues, and of brows bound with civic laurels.
She wrote of fraternity and emancipation, and joined associations whose object was the sacri- fice of personal interest to the general welfare. She addressed a communication to the Convention, in behalf of an extension of the influence of women, and in favor of the establishment of an asylum for orphans ; this is a model of fervid style and of close argumentation. In no sense, however, did she quit the legitimate sphere of her duties as a woman : she neither became an Amazou nor a citoyenne.
She joined the party of the Girondins, and em- ployed her eloquence and her beauty to assuage the horrors of the Reign of Terror. Upon the dispersion of her friends, she fled hastily towards Spain, where her father was in the enjoyment of fortune and office. An irregularity in her passport drew upon her the suspicions of the police of Bordeaux.
She was arrested and thrown into prison. It is at this point that properly com- mences her national and historical career. This man, the son of a cook, possessed the entire confidence of the Jacobins, having prepared and contributed to the execution of the tei'rible massacres of September.
They made him pro -con- sul at Bordeaux, within whose hospitable walls the scattered rem- nants of the Girondins had asked and found a refuge. He took lodgings upon the square where he had established the guillotine. He directed the proceedings of the scafi'old from his window : and applauded the most skillful decapitations. After thinning the po- litical ranks, he attacked the merchants and the industrial classes.
He burthened them with taxes and confiscations, and guillotined those whose engagements were unfulfilled. Famine followed in this train of calamity, and the fierce pro-consul composed new lists of proscription from the names of persons designated as monopolists and forestallers of the grain market. In all these measures he was supported by the Convention, to which he sent regular reports of his proceedings, and from which he received congratulations upon the salutary severity of his pro-consulate.
An event now happened which, in giving a new turn to his thoughts, suspended these saturnalia of blood. Madame de Fon- tenay, whom he had seen at Paris at the house of Madame La- meth, was now confined in a dungeon at Bordeaux : she wrote to him, imploring his protection or his interference. The terrible inquisitor, who did not bear his character written on his person- — for he was of noble aspect, but twenty-four years old, impassioned and eloquent — visited the fair petitioner in her cell.
One glance of the enchantress sufficed to open her prison doors : she, on her part, expressed, and probably felt, no reluctance in accepting the implied conditions of her enlargement. She took up her resi- dence in Tallien's house, and speedily obtained over him a con- trolling and salutary ascendency. Under the benign control of Madame de Fonteuay, Tallien became a humane and beneficent citizen.
He ceased to compose hsts of proscription, and appended his signature instead, to columns of pardon and reprieve. The lovely suppliant saved many hundreds of lives, and endeared herself to thousands who, while condemning the irregularity of her life, could but admire the excellence of her heart.
On one occasion, the ferocity of Tallien's instincts breaking out anew, she arrested the fatal conse- quences by asking him for his portrait. A painter was sum- moned, and being instructed by Madame de Fontenay to protract the work, Tallien was absorbed, to the exclusion of his bloody avocations, in the peaceful duty of sitting for his likeness.
The Marquis de Paroy, who obtained an audience of Madame de Fon- tenay, in the hope of enlisting her compassion in behalf of his fa- ther confined in prison, was admitted to Tallien's library, now transformed into an artist's studio. He has described it as resem- bling the boudoir of the Muses : a piano, a harp, a guitar, an easel and loose music, a pallet and color-box, brushes and miniatures, a writing desk upon which lay an unsigned petition for pardon, encumbered the room in picturesque confusion.
Tallien was seated in a luxurious arm-chair, dividing his attentions between the painter and his mistress. The latter was diligently embroid- ering upon satin. She permitted the marquis to hope that her intercession for his father would be effectual. Tallien was denounced and recalled to Paris, accused of having arrested the Revolution. She escaped, but was ar- rested at Versailles.
She was taken to the prison of the Carmes, where she was plunged into an underground cell; she received insufficient food, and her bed was a pallet of straw, unchanged from day to day. In the same prison was confined Josephine de Beauharnais ; they often met, and there formed the intimacy which was destined, some months later, to bring about the ac- quaintance and the marriage of Josephine and Napoleon. One was predestined to the throne to which the love of young Bonaparte was to raise her : the other was predestined to overthrow the Re- public, by inspiring Tallien with the courage to attack the Com- mittees in the person of Robespierre.
The captives were con- sumed with souvenirs, with impatience and thirst for life. With the points of their scissors, with the teeth of their combs, they scratched upon the plaster of the walls, initials, dates, and bitter invocations to fallen hberty. These inscriptions are still legible : "Liberty, when wilt thou cease to be a vain word? One of her friends, named T-'scherau-Fargeau, exerted his influence with Goffinal and Lavalette to obtain the postpone- ment of her trial : in this he succeeded, and meethig Tallien walk- ing disconsolately upon the Champs Elysees, he said to him, " Do not fear for the citoyenne Cabarrus : she will not be brought at present before the revolutionary tribunal.
On the 23d of July, Alexandre de Beauharnais, the husband of Josephine, per- ished upon the scaflfold : on the 26th, Josephine and Madame de Fontenay were to be judged and executed. On the 25th the lat- ter wrote as follows to Tallien: "The police administrator has just left me : he came to inform me that I am to be tried, and consequently guillotined, to-morrow. This is very unlike a dream I had last night : I thought that Robespierre was dead and that the prisons were open : but thanks to your signal cowardice, there will very soon be no one left in France capable of realizing my dream.
Tallien replied : " Calm yourself, Madame, and be as prudent as I shall be cour- ageous. Tallien, in company with Fr6ron and Billaud, had plotted the destruction of Robespierre : ascending the tribune, and brandishing a poignard aloft, he accused the tyrant of aspir- ing to dictatorship and usurpation.
The Convention, whose members were in personal fear of the growing ascendency of Robespierre, eagerly profited by the opportunity, and in the midst of tumult and agitation passed sentence of death upon him. Robespierre was executed the next day. His fall terminated the period to which history has given the name of " Terror.
Madame de Fontenay became Madame Tallien on the 26th of December of the same year. The newly married couple took up their residence at Chaillot, just without the walls of Paris. Madame Talhen's existence was soon absorbed in balls and concerts ; and she became the fore- most in the whirl of gaiety to which Paris abandoned itself upon the fall of Robespierre. Josephine and Theresia were now insep- arable : a letter from the former to the latter shows to what extent they were absorbed in the frivolous excitements of the period : "There is to be a magnificent ball at Thelusson's, I hear : I do not ask you if you are going, for the fete would languish without you.
As it appears to me important that our dresses should be absolutely ahke, I write to inform you that I shall wear a red handkerchief in my hair, after the Creole fashion, and with three knots at the temples : we will each of us wear our peach- blossom under-skirt. This, which is rather daring for me, is very natural for you, who are younger, handsomer jjerhaps, and incom- parably fresher. I wish especially to enrage ' les trois Bichons ' and ' les bretelles Anglaises.
Tallien was now compelled, by the force of a reaction which soon set in, to resume his position as an advanced republican, and he again professed sanguinary opinions. His wife, occujjied in reviving the pleasures and the social amenities which the Terror had banished, was somewhat alienated from him, in consequence. This antagonism produced a singular effect : the newspapers in the interest of Tallien did not hesitate to pubhsh the most imperti- nent attacks upon his wife.
Thus, the "Tableau de Paris " would fill its columns with such gibes and innuendoes as the following : "Theresia Cabarrus pretends to be but twenty-three years old ; her enemies give her twenty-eight and twenty-nine She is a handsome woman, with the exception of her nose, which certainly is not attractive. Otherwise, her face deserves nothing but praise ; and we must admire the splendor of her form and the beauty of her arms.
Our description must stop here : those who desire further information may apply, in Germany, to M. The friendship of the two ladies was so sincere that it suffered no interruption from their rivalry in love. Both were too well pleased with possessing so powerful a protector, and enjoying a credit so unlimited, to endan- ger their position by an inconsiderate quarrel. Josephine, whose extravagance was at this early pei-iod ungovernable, drew heavily upon the purse of Barras and of other intimate friends.
It was through Madame Tallien that she became acquainted with Barras, and it was Barras himself who presented Napoleon Bonaparte to her : it was also with Barras that originated the idea of an alli- ance between the two. Such is the intimate connection of Madame Tallien with the fall of Robespierre and the elevation of jSTapoleon.
The ahenation of Tallien and his wife ended in a virtual sepa- ration. He joined Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt, and sailed in May, He occupied a subordinate position in the department of Political Economy, together with Bourrienne and Regnault de St. Jean d'Angely. Josephine and Madame Tallien continued their intimacy, which gave uneasiness to Bonaparte, who one evening said to Lefebvre at Cairo, " Lefeb- vre, what is Madame Bonaparte doing at this moment in Paris?
Visconti, the Cisalpine ambassadress, sent the unfortunate man to the hospital in her carriage, and Madame Tallien took up a col- lection in his behalf. An appeal urged by so fair a petitioner was not likely to pass unheeded, and a very considerable sum was reahzed. After the revolution which made Bonaparte First Consul, he ordered her exclusion from the Tuil- eries. The newspapers not venturing to narrate the anecdote in its original form, disguised it under the di'ess of a reminiscence of Kome, as follows : " The lovely Sempronia, wife of one of the lieutenants that the great Csesar left behind him in Egypt to reap the fruit of his victories, desired to present herself before the hero of the Nile.
The ami- able Sempronia possessed infinite grace and countless attractions. With so many resources with which to please, how was it possi- ble for her to remain constant to a husband now eighteen months absent? Evidence not to be refuted attested the weakness of Sempronia.
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