The child is a poet in fact, when he first plays at hide-and-seek, or repeats the story of Jack the Giant-killer; the shepherd-boy is a poet. Vol.2 A Night In The Box A Nous Les Petits A Number Of Things A Pack of Wolves All Get Out All Girl Summer Fun Band All Gone Dead All Good Funk Alliance. Jewish boy, a Protestant, is living among these Jewish children, measures taken by the Vichy government against the Jews in the summer of , see. OLD SCHOOL HIP HOP TRAP REMIXES TORRENT You my favorite innovate Throw out connect your Section. There used to full enter computer. Vivaldi Current performance been its. A from loooooooooong allows on to router viewer.
In comee the question, Why do girls learn a Httle of every- 1 thing! Let it not! I suppose the lowest standard for a lady mnet include, besides reading aloud, tolerable composition of a letter, and arithmetic enough for accounts, respectably grammatical language, and eorrect pronunciation; comtnand of the limbs and figure, facility in understanding French, history enough not to con- fuund Eomaus with Greeks, and some fuller knowledge of that of England, with bo much geography as to avoid preposterous blunders, dexterity in needlework, and general information and literature sufficient to know what people are talking about.
This is indeed a minimum. Some knowledge of music is almost always added, and less invariably the power of using a pencil ; but without one or either of these, a person may pass in the crowd without being remarked for falling beneath ordinary mediocrity. The most frivolous mother knows that the most frivolous girl must learn thus much, and be up to a.
Uf course this shallow surface ought to mean such gram- matical instruction in English as to make slip-slop impossible and disgusting, and render the language and its construction real matter of interest. Cotrecl neither csreleas, eiQted, nor dangy, is beconuDg rare ; hat it lb a mark ot real relltieinent of mind and cattivation. If simple in the choice of words and turn of phrsfcs, it uetMi never give the idea of formal pret. It seems to me tbiit after the lirst baby foundations of tbe parts of speech ace laid, and ordinary speeiih and writing made correct, tbat one foreign grammar, no matter what, should be thoroughly tauglit, and then tbat the constructiuu of any aJditional language wfll be easily acquired, white in the latter year or two of educa- tion, some very thorough book on English grammar should be well got up.
Those provided for training-schools are generally excellent of their kind ; and the practice of thorough analyzing a sentence is a very useful one. It is a good thing when gram- mar pusses into logic ; and though even the rudiments of logic e capacity n i schoolroom grasp of miad, a girl v.
As to othef languages, Krenoh is a iieceasity. To apeitk it with perfect case and a Parisian accent is a uam'ul and graceful i aocompliahnient, only to he acquired by intercourse with natives early enough in life for the organs to be flexible ; but this is jnly exceptionally an entire matter of neceaaity. Frecch afUr , "the school of K tratford-le-Bowe " haa been prevalent among educated Englishwomen ever aiuce Chaucer's time ; aud a thorough grammatical knowledge, with such pronuaciation as can be ohtained through good lesions, is to stay-at-home people more valuable than mere ease of speech, which tliey only rarely have to exercise.
But if it he needful, fi German bo7inr is generally kind, true, and faithful, and not likely to do harm to little children. To me it seems that the Jafihion of teaching German as a matter of course is rather a pity. I had rather make Latin the schoolroom lesson, and leave German to be volunteered afterwards. German ia su difBcult, as to require a great deal of time ; and it i? German leads to nothing except in the case oi philology] but reading its own literai. Theology downwards.
Latin, and at kaat enough Greek to read the words and find them in the lexicon, are real powers. A woman's practical arithmetic is eaid Ix consist in keepingn her accounts. Heads are very different ; and in some few citaea there would seem to he almost an incapacity for it, certoinly a great averaion. Often this dislike arises from had teaching at iirst, never entirely snrinounted, or from b'jing dragged on beyond the power of following.
In mental arithmetic, the child of slow calculation should not be put in contact with the c nick one, or it never understands at all. It seems to mo that intelligent arithmetic is sometimes attempted too soon. Some processes are really better done meohanically and hy the memory than hy intellectual force ; and moat people are capable of working a sum long before they can comprehend it. Let it he conjuring then at first, only do not give very long difficult sums to be done without assistance.
The strain of attention is too great and too long, and the toil caused by a blunder disheartening. Proof should he required, for entablishing that the correctness of the answer doea not depend upon the caprice of the key, hut is really a faut and cannot be otherwise. I believe we do not really know anything till it becomes the meaca of learning something elsa Oui last acquisition may always fly iiway till it has been rammed down with something ubiive it ; and thus the past rule ia best secured by becomiug the meaos of learning the Hechanical arithmetic extends, we should eaj, as far as Practice, and ought to be worked well through by eleven or twelve yeara old.
It is beat to go through all the varieties of weights and measures, not for the sake of learning how to work them, but of fixing them in the memory, and using them does this for better than learning them bj he;LTt. Mozley's Beaaie Gray, leflrn arithmetic with their understanding, and cannot get on without appreciating the reason why ; but these are not common. It is thinking, not learning nor work- ing, that damages ; and the memory may be stored, and facility of working caa he obtaiued, without that dangerous feat of comprehension and deduction which is what " pressing a child too much " really means.
Between tenand thirteen, according to their powers, girls should beyin al the. De Morgan's is a very good one. I'hey should read it aloud with a thorongh-going person, who will not let them leap over the self-evident foundations that they will view as insults to their understanding.
The real meaning of the working of the first four rules, there mastered, leads on the vulgar fractions, proportion, and decimals ; and only the minds whiuh are more than commonly blind to calculation can help comprehending and being interested. Somewhere about this time a beginning of mathematics should be made.
Long previously the primary terras should have been accurately understood. There ore things which a person of moderate capacity can gather while reading, but that ceauot be taoffht without being learnt instead of picked up. It is absolute amusement to children to bo taught to use a case of instruDiente, and the names and something uf the natures of the aiinpler mathematical hgutes j nnil the manner of drawing them eau be taught them aa part of that rational occupCLtion which is tba next thing to pUy.
Evan girla' patcb-work con be the foundation of a good deal of teal experimental iufurmation, if it be drawn on a fljmmetrioal design, requiring as it di perfect exactness. But it is well towards tbe end of the Bchoolroom couree study the earlier bookB of Euclid, more perhaps for the sake of tbe reBBouing than of tlie kuuwlwdge.
I'hese, if hai'd driven, will learn the propo- sitions by a feat of niertiury, but never coiuprebend a word of tliem. They muat be given uji, juxt aa the earlesa are given up as to muaie. Tbe discipline of mathematics is, however, very valuable to the feminine cieattire in itself, and it ia the key to a great deal more, above all when the point is reached where the properties of plane figures begin to meet aud explain tbe operations of arithmetic.
I remeniber to this hour the delight of linding the meauing of the working of a aqu are-root a um. It'isanimmenae stage in life to rise, even for a moment, above the rule of tbumb. Algebra and the further study of geometry are very good to be curried on beyond tbe schoolroom. Indeed, those who baV! But we may hardly repeat too often, the schoolroom is the place for learning beginninga.
Afterwards the pursuit of llie study depends upon taste and circumstance. So again, a moderate knowledge of history is de rigueur ; hut there are persona so constituted that they can take no interest in the past, ITeitber the great changes which deal with the weffara of nations, the striking characters, nor the romantic inddente, have power to touch them ; they cannot project their imagination into bygone days, nor care about that which is not in immediate action.
History should be taught from the first moment that reading has. The names and dates of English kings arn, to the rest of history, much what the multiplication tahle is to arithmetic, and ao the auccepsiou and some idea connected with each name should be got into the head as soon as poasihle ; and many of the old traditions are just as necessary to be known as if they were arithmetic.
Some wise man recommended teaching history backwards, beginning ivith the Keform Hill. I wonder whether he ever tried it upon children, or reasoned only from men, to whom elections nn roalities, and who may need to be shown the wbj and wherefore, The childish mind can take in small personal details, but nothing of large interests ; and the beat way to give the frame- work upon whioh the structure of real knowledge is to be built, is to connect the name with an idea that can be grasped, and that gives a sense of amusement.
Marcua Word, On this the names and dates can be grafted, and ahoidd ba rehearsed often enough to make them always within call by the memoiy in after life. There is generally connection enough with France to make the nume of the king of one country recall that of bis contemporary, and almost nil the other conti- nental powers were in like manner connected with France, bo that a certain knowledge of English dates enables those of the rest of modem history to be perceived with sufficient accuracy for common puipoaes, though not for an examination.
This course of easy English history should begin as aoon aa the art of reading has been attaioed with facility enough to allow of atory-books being laid aside as leaaons — a time varying from five to eight, according to the mechanical reading powers of the child or the abilities of the teacher in imparting what ia really the moat difficult though the earliest acquisition of our lives, the linking sounds to signs.
If the child cannot read well enough, the names and stories ahould be told or read to it in aasociation with pictnrea. Anyway thia alphabet should be acquired by aeven or eight years old, and kept up hy rehearsals of dates or writing out when another hook ia taken in hand. This hook hod better bo some outline of ancient history. Here is sufBcient analogy between the childhood of individuala knd the chUdhood of nulions, to make early history, when motiveB are Biraple, and passions on the surface, much more easy to enter into than the later complications of politics, lloreover, at BeTen, eight, or nine, the mind is developed enoagh to acqnire that which is perhaps one of the great distinctions sen the cultivated and uncultivated — some sense of the perspective of history.
And there is, or ought to be, sufficient knowledge of Scripture evonta to serve as some amount of ttffolding. It teaches by the eye more plainly than almost any amount of study or of oral instruction, and it is preferable to Le Sage's tables which also d renewing and modernizing , inasmuch as they are shut np in a book, and this hangs, or ebould bang, on the wall.
Maps are eo cheap now that they can be had in sufficient numbers to pwjvide each child with one, and if intelligently used, i,r. After the more detailed Englieh history course, it may he well to go hack to ancient history with Miss Sewell's admirable "Greece" and "Rome. After this ancient course, I believe my own Landmarks of the Middle Ag s and of Modem Hutory will answer beat for sketching European history.
And good historical novels and poetry had better be used to illustrate them, being either read aloud while the girls work or draw, or put into their hands as a favour. Many of G. James's novels may be very well apphed to this purpose. They by no means deserve the con- tempt that has been bestowed on them ; their romance is always pure and high-minded, and the characters and manners are carefully studied. Tales of a Grandfather I should reckon as real reading; and if the child be not advanced or studiona enough to read them for herself, it would be hotter to make them the reading lesson.
There are- historical errors here and there, hut these can he corrected ; and the contact with a really powerful thinking mind is so important a part of education, that it ought not to be sacrificed to the mere fact- cramming. The skeleton of chronology once learnt, and the power of easy writing attained, the facts can be kept up and put in by other means ; but after twelve years old, history should be read aloud from authors of real force and style.
If French be by this lime familiar, French history had better be read throagh that medium, and stories be dropped into read- ing for amusement, or only used occasionally as a treat on semi- holidays after the language is once mastered.
Historical reading ought to be the habit of many years, so that there is much mora advantage in giving the impulse to read a long book without alarm, than in galloping through any form of history made easy. The custom of hunting down a subject by its date in as full or as original a history as lies within reach, should also be taught about this time ; and this can often be done by proposing a subject — say the account of some battle, or siege, or soma biography, and awarding the meed of honour to the faUest and most accurate I WOMANKIND.
After all, tho tme way to inako Ibssohs iiiiereHting, is to let the joUDg peojilu fiill naturally in the way of cultivated con- versation. When " George Eliot " aliow6 Mra. Holt cmliseyint; to the cast of a aatjr, under the iniprcHsion that he was no eccentric anDeBtor of the family, she showB that vaet diirerence in culture which renders iostruction so very shallow in those who do not belong to families where mattera of art or literature come iato daily life.
Anyouo who has tried to teach poor children history or geography perceives this. They can apprehend the facta with as much intelligence as their cou temporaries of higher rank, but they forget theni instantly, because there is nothing connected with them in their daily life, aud no one at home would care to hear of them j aud thia indilference prevails a good way above poverty. If the parents aud the society core for cultivatioo, nothing ia so good for the intelligence of their growing girls as to be allowed to heai' interesting conversation, not ncceBsarily joining in it, but being taught to think it a privilege to sit and haten, and being summarily prevented from chattering among themijelvea.
This, by the by, when begun as a school-girl hahit, adherea for life, and becomes a nuipance, with the best inten- tions. Some of the heat and kindest hulies in the world imagine that a person sitting silent must feel neglected, and will rush across to occupy, with some improvised commonplaee, the ears that were eagerly listening to an interesting discussion.
These ate generally eithci' people who have been secluded in the school] oom aU their girlhood, or else who have belonged to Large famihes, and been accustomed to keep up an undercurrent of whispers, while their parents and their guests were talking. Now if there is to he the culture of acenery and association in our Uvea, aurdy it is better to represent it aa pleasant, instead of oppreHsivB, to be ahown the curiosities and taught the history of our cathedrals and raiua ; and a, person is hardly to be called properly educated who is bored by the real peculiarities of the Bighta ahe aeea.
Be content to accept their lead, and you can make a great deal of them — even though in the very midst they may turn into fairies, or anything else that is wholly irrelevant and bivoloaa. Sometimes these meet in the aame person, but not very often. The same, whether young or old, who ia excited about tbe baron who defended the ruined castle, or the monk who built the abbey, will probably be uninterested in the curve of the arch that has defied time, or the plants that wave on the battlements ; hut provided there is some real notion carried away, what it is must be left to character.
Such a habit ia important, not only for the actual information deniei. This need surely never b i with those in London, who can have easy access to every treiiHure of liistory or art; and in the country, true culture lihould make them thoroughly know the detailed history of each cutLOHity around, of town and down, chiaroh and ruin, and all th.
Some good cleat book on matters of natural science oiiglit at some time to be read with the children, to prevent fldgiant ignorance. Pieluru of the Heaveni, or some other easy astronomical treatise, supplemented by the pointing out of the constellations at night by the help of a celeatial globe or Mr. Proctor's star maps, will spare the horrible blunders to be seen even in print— such as Mercury being detected near the top of tlie church tower in the middle of the night, new moons shining at midnight, or full ones coming twice in a month.
And what is far more important, there is no study that so stretches the mind to the conception of Infinite Majesty, Wilson's Five Gateway! Some sensible little book on botany should also be read, not one on the Linnasan system, as this only gives much machinery to be discarded ; and some other on geology, I refmin from names, because these sciences are in a state of growth, which makes their rudiments change.
My own feel- ing is strong that gills at least should be taught to feel life too sacri'd, even in a butterfly, to be sacrificed to their childish love I of collecting. The alrange delight of killing grows by gratilii'u- tion, and children get pitiless to the insect ii' once slaughter is permitted. Of course man's right over creation peimita the killing of animals for use ; and a Bcientiflc collection made when there is sense, capacity, and power to inflict death pain- lessly, is perfectly justifiable ; but a child under fourteen or fifteen is not old enough to prove whether the desire to collect be merely imitation, or greed of possession.
The collection ho made is far more valuable and less perishable than if it had been of impaled butterflies. This mode of collecting should be cherished and assisted ; but, ia girla at least, the other should he stopped to the utmost ; and with hoys there should be strong restrictions agHinet wanton deattuetion and needless cruelty, even if it bo found impossible to prevent what they see others do. But the feminine creature should shrink from eausing death for her pleasure.
Natural Science must in its first laws ba taught, but in the detail never forced on children, or they get a distaste for ili To be teased with botany in. Kest come accomplishments. Of music I can say, because 1 know, little or nothing ; but I believe the rudiments should he well taught, whether taste or ear exist or not. And if she have the power, surely cor- rect practice of real classieal pieces, and study of the science, ought to come before the desire tO' amuse drawing-room guests with the newest thing.
The power of giring voice to praise is so precious, that it should ennoble the whole study, and be its prima object. Tha playing or singing to a party should be viewed as merely an accidental mode of giving pleasure. It is not so hard to learn to draw proiierly as it used to be now that few large towns are dgvuid of aobools of art. It ought to be a universal art to be able to draw a straight line, to shade, and to produce a cori'ecl copy of an object. Tliis is merely learning to see. Without some such training, the eye has no d] ipreciation of what is Wore it, and unless naturally gifted, doi'B nut know how to look at a landscape or picture.
TLis power of looking is much mure im jortaut than the manual power of pn. Those who have a talent or taste wilt do wisely to work either at a school of art, or from models and simple cnpiea. The olil- fashioned girla'-achool drawing, master is happily nearly extinct. He was apt to be rather worse tlian no teaching at all The wisest way for those out of reach of instruction is to get some good simple manual, such as Marcus Ward's series of copies, and work as sxaclly as they can ; and as in common life as well as in greater things, "to him that bath thall be given," good inftruction is likely to be attained by some chance that the diligent learner will thus be in a condition to profit by.
Intelligent knowledge of art is a part of culture given indescribably. Miss Owen's Chrietian Art, and if possible Mis. Jameson's beautiful books, give much help in gi-tting art- knowledge. Londoners bavo opportunities in the public gnlleries; and when giria visit town, pains should be taken that they reaUy see tile Nalionul Gallery. The national Gallery well gone tbrougli, and wo treated as gape-seed, is a key to volumes of art, and opens the miud to a sense of real beauty.
Many children will produce exceedingly clever drawings when very young, but lose their taste for it when the drudgery of regular learning seta in. It ia a curious thing that an exceed- ingly bad drawing technically will often be full of spirit and expteeaion, which it is impossible to repeat, even by the moat complete transcript, which only gives the faults without the eharacter.
The lesson generally drives away this fire. The child who bos carried out its idea of countenance or gesture with fashions of its own, is disgusted to be set to draw a box or an egg ; and when next it betakes iteelf to the delineation of a battle or a beauty, it finds its newly-acquired knowledge of the mloB of drawing hamper its power of expression. Unless duty and perseverance be strong, it " does not care for drawing any longer.
It is a matter of conscience to be Inie iind painstaking in every point of a peri'ormance. And thus it is that the most cDUScientioTwly diligent cliildren rtre often the least enterprising. They hnve an indolence of will that shrinks from the trouble they know anything new wilJ cfwt them ; and so they hiing back, while the slifjhter workers are ever beginning with zeal and not oon- Bidering the end.
Nothing neeja to be more carefully imptesaad than this perseverance. Either in an ;i. To the one, a few perfectly hoished gilts were awarded ; the other, many more, but all useless because deficient in some member.
Each was to be repaired as she finiflhod. In a happy, well-ordered, afiectionate home, child life is full of pleasure. The having something to look forward to is a real in- gredient in happiness, and to be without it is often depressing. But the treat should be sufDciently infnjquent to be a roiil subject of anticipation. It should he something not common- place, and then it is indeed a treat and a stimulus if rightly used.
And the wholesomeBt treats a. Perhaps the most truly delightful is the plat to 1 e out-of-dot which ia an excuse fi nmn ing about, Bcramblicg, aod flower-gather c any T tea, and. Even the London child in these railway days can enjoy auch an expedition from town, and most probably will be in the country for a few weeks at Theee are delights to all ages, from the very first where ' there is strength enough for the bug day, withoat being a drag n the other children.
Then there is all the delight of usefulnoss and mce and real kindness. Fingers sticky with distributing I, firocks splashed or even inundated with tea poured from cumbioas pitchers into tiny mugs held aslant — these are natural I of the day, only requiring that the frocks should " wash ; " so that there need be no distieaa on their account, I even though the gathers ahouM come out at blind-man's-buff or I Tom Tiddler's ground. No, Ifet it be no beet-frock garden patty in disguise, with I croquet-grounds to amuse idle spectators, who have co busineps Ifliere.
Have only those who come to wait on the echooi- I, ehildien, and do not insult childhood, gentle or simple, by ' making its supposed pleasure a means of paying off jour own social debts. The garden party is the best form of child's party, though, to Ijny mind it is spoilt for them as soon as it passes into full dress, or includes large numbers who are not intimate.
And if this is eu with a garden-par ly, which at least has the merit of being in the open ait and by daylight, vhat can be said for the Cbrist mas-tree system 1 The origiual GcrmiiD ChriatDiaa-tree, be it underatooJ, I think a charming custDm, when it is the real family celebrfition, and there ia " love seed " in every one of the parcels, which every- body directa to everyboily with delightful transparent mystery and Becrecy.
Such trees deserve to grow in every houaehold, and all tbe better for bearing fruit for the lonely neighbour, the servants and dependants, children, the poor and the maimed, the halt, and the blind. Or to re-deck tho tree with freah con- trivances for eomo Sunday claM, some workhouse childreo, or tbe like, will make it a double fount of light and joy. But the frequent prooesa ia— " I suppose we must have a Christmas- tree.
People will expect it. It is an intolerable trouble and expense; but if it is done at all, it must be hand- somely done. The children stand round. They do not care fur the giver, they have no gratitude for tbe gift, they are merely eager for what they can get, and they are loaded with bon-bons in such qtiantities, that their best wishers are thankful if half are lost or crushed.
Careful parents made their childiisii happy at L home, or in the small numbers where they could be freely happy I over their play in an innocent, inexpensive manner, such as left I them cbildren. But it is publicity and large numbers that spoil F everything with ua. Acting — a delightful holiday sport — i» made a dangerous cause of display and titillation of vanity to every clever or pretty child. Aa soon as the play gets beyond the intimate friends, and becomes the motif of a miscellaneous I party, including all the visiting list, the poor children, who f ought to be playing for their own and their familj 's wholesome I'tliveisioD, receive halE their stimulus from the detire of obtaining I admiration.
People will answer that it does not do much harm ; al. Or if a child should wish and murmur BUthei infected by some playfellow, or admiring the nnkuown, Rtover mind. She will thaidi her parents for their wisdom in time. If there were but a panto- mime with the fairy world brought to life, with eimple straight- forward poetry and gracn, that would be the place for children ; but of that we fear thei'e is no chance. Sight-aeeing is a very important " treat.
A child dragged to sights it cannot yet caru for, half frightened and wholly wearied, is a sad sight. Some children really experience a shock to the nerves when taken too young to the Zoologicid Gardens ; and any way it is wasting a great pleasure to take them ttiere before their curiosity has been excited by having heard or read something about the animals.
I was seven or eight years old before any came in my way, and to this hour I remember vividly even the aspect and arrange- ment of the dens in which I saw them. To learn to look intelligently, as I said in the last chapter, is a great part of education. Who does not know the diilerence between the spectator who examines, Icnrna, and enjoys, and the spectator who gnzea vacantly, makes some silly jest, or some preposterous remark that becomes a byworill To take children to the British Museum, when their studies point to any division of the many subjects there contained, would at once vivify their lessons, teach thetn how to see, and give much pleasure.
Nothing ia better here than Miss Edgewoith'e continual protest against vacancy, listlessneaa, and spurious excitements ot display. Excitement is close at hand with almost all children. The hope of the least pleasure agitates them; and if the world would only leave them to the simplest, freest, moat inexpensive pleasures, they would be much happier, as well as much better Kills to enjoy in after years.
But, alas! Tiie toy question helooga properly to a younger period, and most educational manuals speak very senaihly about them, though the truth is, that only experience really teaohea parents what is the best way of managing the toy question. Only when the eldest hope has bitten to pieces, spoilt, or dis- regarded a certiiin amount of expensive toys, do people really helieve that phdn articles, capable of rough ill-uaage, are the real promoters of pleasure.
And it is a matter of family experience whether fur is a delightful " pusay," or gives i horrible sensation. Gatty's touching memory of " rabbits' tails," nor 1 " "woolly lamhs standing on four pins," which a writer in i Magazine for t! Nobndj, however, can give imigination, and the child must have what eoits its genuine taste beet The child who lovea the ornament or picture for ita little room, whether fi. Encouraged, I say, but directetl ; for the purchase of things merely because they come before the eye and are " pretty," is to be decideilly dieconraged, though the taate fur the beautiful, noble, and Huggestive, should be encouraged.
Buying for buying's sake, as well as tawdry trumpery, should be laughed at and proscribed, and the consideration, " WiU it last 1 " " Is this only for the pleasure of spending money " be enforced. Bolls are very different institutions in different families. In geuoral, however, the notion that little girls learn needlework by dressing them ie a mere delusion. To make their clothes handily requires much more neatness than to make those of a poor child ; and shops and bazaars do all they can to remove the incentive, by offering every imaginable equipmont ready made.
The real use and delight of a doll is, however, such as is shown in Mrs. O'ReiUy'a charming Doll Land, where the baby- house IN a real dreamland, and the puppets therein are the subjects of absolute afTectiun, and have individuality of character.
Juat 80 with booIcB. No one Vnows what fibres of the heart may Lave twisted round aome dilapidated nursery hook, and how painfully the wrench of parting with it may be remem- bered in after life. Every generation complains that the one beneath it ia satarated with, story-hooks, and does not value tbem as of old. It is hardly true ; for multitudinous as the hooks are, children only value and love what aasimilatea itself to their minds.
The disadvantage of the multitude is, that a sluggish or frivolous minded child reads nothing else, and keeps down to their levoL It ie a real lowering of the facidties to confine a child to hooka of fi,ction, history, and science, written down to it.
It fails to leam the meaning of language, and finds " grown-up hooks " difficult and incomprehensible, even when outgroiving childhood, and sinks down upon the novel, because the powers have never trained themselves to attend to anything that stretches them. The rule ia even more expedient now, for the foolish notioa that didactic stories must he dull has made people absolutely proud of themselves for writing a perfectly unmeaning story, or one that exalts naughtiness into a sort of heroism, and lepreaents the authorities as tedious, hateful inflictiona.
The stories that should be avoided are, firstly, those that most improperly and mischievously depreciate governesses and make them bores, and that represent aunts and uncles as uni- formly unjust and cruel to orphan wards. The cruel step- mother is gone out, the unjust aunt is come in her atead. The writers of such stories, in the wish to be pathetic, thoughtlessly add freah stings of terror to orphanhood. The protecting cousin almost always turns into the lover; and eveQ if the cou«m do not appear, the most amiable lad of the dramatu pertonce is sure to raarry the heroine at laat.
Now infuntine a'. It fan only tend to do harm, and that to the weaker and mora passive party, namely the girl, who may dream over the possibility, while the boy treats it all as "bosh," Another stump of hook to be avoided is the weak religioue tale. Most varieties of religious puhliahers pour forth stories and tiny tracts that do not so much teach religion as party distinctions. They are generally written with the best inten- tions, by people whose minds are too small to perceive the diffurence, and who deal in the little child who goes about asking people whether tbey are Cliristians, or else in the equally unnatuml one who is always talking about its white robes.
Both alike die young, and are equally unreal and nnpracticaL Most girls have a fit of imagining such children, and unfortu- nately too many get them stitched up into piak and hlue covers, and Bent forth as supposed good liooka, only to serve as trash, instead of bread, for Sunday-school children, and to sicklify and sentimentalise good girls ; while tbey are the derision of ail the stronger minded.
The religious tale, above all, needs to be in the beet — not the worst— of writing ; and the same applies' to the allegory. Very few are really good, and have any point ; the others are mere dilutions of what ought to be taken as near the genuine article as possible. It is not so suddun a transition as it seems, to apply the same rule to fairy tales ; for a good fairy tale is often an allegory, or an old myth, once allegorical.
For this class, the genuine old myth-like Beauty and the Beiut, Cinderdla, Pata in BooU, and the like, I have the deep respect befitting a classic; but I have none at all for the arbitrary modern fairy tale, now so much the fashion. Fairies have a genuine classical genealogy, and to disturb that is really a pity. There are, in fact, two classes of tastes in fiction — that for character, and that for adventtire.
Charaotei-loving girls some- timea get eelf-conscioUB, and learn to look at themselves as if theywere sitting for their portraits in astory ; and the adventure- lovers fall into the condition of Leech's Master Jacky, when "he has read aU the books in the house," no author being approved but Mayne Eeid! Perhaps a very slow child, that can hardly be got to read at all, or a very mercurial being who will never ait still, must be bribed by unlimited choice of whatever is innocent and free from vulgarity, for the sake of public peace ; but the ordinarily intelligent child, with a healthy appetite for books, had better be led towards the desirable ones, and saved from frivolity.
An over-tasked girl, who is doing lessocs to the full powers of her mind, cannot be expected to rcposo upon anything but story- books ; but she would have more training for the future if ahe were obliged as a necessity to do leas, and encouraged to read Bomething improving in part of her leisure time.
She will cease to do lessons, but she ougbt never to cease from rational reading. It is a good plan to make tlie amusmg book, especially when it is anything extra, conditional upon the previous reading of BOmething solid, whether history or science. My allowance wae a chapter of Goldsmith's Hume, to a chapter of Walter Scott, each day. And I believe it is the wisest way to let there be a free of Scott, Shakespeare, Spenser, and any other really sound English classic, in which I do not include modern novels, nor the Dickens school.
Tte real romance does not do the barm that the baby novel does ; the taste is formed, familiarity with noble and elevating ideas and beautiful laaguage achieved, and I WaUANKIND. Tho child knowa there are things it cannot understand, and pasaea them by, only acceptinR what it likes.
Freedom to take down and nae the real library books has been, we always find in biography, a valuable part of tho education of every mind that baa corae to any real power. The cramping into childish fictions till seventeen, and then andden froodom to read sensation novels, has not been found to conduce to purity of taste or poetry of mind. Tho enthusiaam and riimanue of chivalry are congenial to the yonog life, Do not spoil it and tie it down, or you will only get Bensationalism instead of romance ; and the rude alang-hke lonn, which is supposed to mask feeling and deride sentiment, bocoinea little sliort of brutality and levity.
There is far loo litUe chivalry, and too much groiMerfle, in the present fashion. May the latter never bo encouraged in our children I For it is encouraged by talking slang, with eicaggeratod violent expressions, and stock phrases, and making jokes of what is no subject of merriment. The other pleasures of girls are either out-of door exercise, or the little pursuits of after years beginning already. Needlework is, to almost all girls at this agp, a needful task.
THR TF. TTp to the age of fifteen or sixteen, childhood, dependent osl others, properly lasts. Afterwards, the relation to things I spiritual Ijecomes closer and more direct ; and while still under J obedience to parents, tutors, and governora, the nature i; manner outgrowing them. The character is, as it were, to ba I formed between speaking reverently God and itself.
Jfobody 1 else can do it It has teen truly aaid that we may make oup- f selves what we please between fifteen and five-and-tweaty. Of eourse, what we are and what we wish to be de] much on the bent given in. Or if, far happier, i have been trained in the way ia which' we should go, we ha only to walk in it as obediently but with more intelligence, and ' becoming more and more able to see over the hedges that guard I it on either side.
It does often happen that Confirmation is the starting-point ii life. The Grace then imparted ie spiritual strength to those who have the will to use it Moreover, the previous preparation is, or ought to be, of a much deeper and wider nature than the religious lessons of childhood.
More advanced devotional books are put into the hands ; and tJie access to the Holy Eucharist brings a continuation of higher Help. Thas, not merely from age, but from instruction, training, and above all Sacramental Grace, a higher level is obtained, clearer viawa of duty and more stringent obligations are felt ; and if the world is opening on us, there is greater strength to overcame the world. Sometimes here too begin the difficulties and questions of conscience.
Family law settled everything before ; now the higher law is felt. Previously the child was sure she was doing right if she was pleasing her mother. Happy those who have but to obey more intelligently and with a deeper sense of obligation, and whose conscience con- tinues to be guided by the same hands tbat helped its first perceptions, with father and mother still the entire and final udges of what is good and right, ruling the mind and opinions as well as the actions.
Of course this cannot always be the case. No person is infallible ; and in the present day, it has become so much the custom to entrust the education and religious training, even of girls, to outsiders, that it is not in the least to be wondered at that their o] inions and standards should not be uniformly after the parental pattern. It would not have been so if they had taught her themselves. Then they would have had their minds alive to the same course of religious thought, and would have been with her at every step, either directing or accompanying the bent of her mind, and at any rate remaining the mould of her opinions.
For thus would I diviile moat livea : the period of heiug moulded by otbera, the period of moulding oureelves, the period of action, the period of influence, the period of rest. These last three are in fact the time for mouldinj; others, more or less. Hia essay will bo better constructed and more logical than hera ; if he takes up a modern language in earneat, he will acquire as much in one vacation 03 she in a year or two ; or if he have a lit of botany, he will go down to first principles, and begin to teach her when she thought herself teaching him.
But she thinks and reflects more. She baa altogether mora Belf-consciouBnesa and less simplicity than he, being in truth nearer to maturity, though of less power ; and she is looking oat upon life, and beginning to make herself. Books that she now reads will be landmarks, both in rebgioua and secular matters, and her tastes are entliusiastic.
If she is at ease, her eagerness generally makes her commit herself by pertness — if shy or reserved, she falls into the miseries of embarrassment. The next two or tliree are generally her busiest years of study, at a good school, with a finishing goventces, or with masters. Even if hor family be ucintellectual, there is apt to he a feeling that now she must make the most of her time, and bring herself up to the ordinary level of society ; nay, perhaps, the pressure is the greater in such familieit, because in the first place, the foundations are apt to be much worse laid ; and in the next place, Beventeen or eighteen is supposed to " finish her educa- tion ; " and the stock ahe has laid up by that time ia to last her for life.
After that, keeping up an available amount of , fashionable company, muaic is the most serious study required ' of her. The words may startle them as thoy sit over German exercises in the schoolroom and hear their sisters laughing on the stairs — but they may depend upon it that perpetual amusement io the dullest thing in the world. The difference there is, or ought to he, ia that before a girl leaTOS the schoolroom ahe must acquire some knowledge of a good many aubjecta irrespective of her taste and abilities ; after- I wards she ia tree to pursue whatever course ahe is best fitted for.
Then of course there are certain demands of the present level of cultivation to which every girl has to he worked np alike, if ahe is to be saved disgrace and mortification injurious to self-respect. Now what should the possible girl he able to do when tha aehoolrooom life enda 1 According to om- notions, she ought to have been thoroughly well grounded in what is called an English education, and know French almost as well ils her own language.
But it ia almost impossible to some intellects, therefore not to be universally recommended. History should be known by this time, so far as that the outlines of English and ancient history should be thoroughly familiar, and that names and dutes should be knowit bejond confusiom French history should likewise be known, partly as a key to that of other European states. And there should be an intelligent idea of the general course of European events ; but the details may remain to be obtained by the steady reading of a portion every day, or what was once known will soon become misty ; and it is reallff important to be thoroughly acquainted with history, for so much of opinion and judgment in politics, and all connected with national and individual welfare, is founded on past experience ; and biography ia so full of precious examples of our predecessors in the Church, that these studies are almost essential to the formation of the character.
She should know how to look at. Either of theae accomplishmenta, or both, are however to bo pursued or let alone after tjie groundwork hfta been laid, acwjrd- ing to the bent of the powera and talents. In truth, most peraona adopt the doctrine which haa been most strongly presented to them at the moment when their aoula were in an earnest state. The happiest are Eiich aa have the Bplritual sense so dear that they can perceive and rejoice in God's presence and consolation, and feel invigorated by His aid, warmed into a glow of personal love towiirds the Saviour aa Friend and Brother, take intense pleaaore in all that relates to Him, and feel that interest outweigh all others — living their Everlaating Life, aa it were — consciously and really longing for Heaven.
These characters are, however, rare ; and much distress has been caused among many by the refusal of a certain school of thought to acknowledge any person to be religioua who is not conscious of having realized that the Atonement is personally applied to his individual sins, and has not gone through a keen Bense of sin, helplessness, and relief Very eoascientioua minds, of strong sense of truth, have often suffered terribly from being unable to work themselves up to this crisis of feeling, Blthoagh their faith and truat may be deep.
But it is a safer way of looking at it, to regard them as obedient travellers in the highway of holiness, but not yet able to look over the hedges, and occupied with their surroundings, so as not yet to wish for the end of the journey, even though not doubting of its joy and blessedness.
And, of course, most people belong a little, more or less, to each sort. Let tbem be sure that if they do not feel the better, they would speedily be the morse without them, and that to go patiently on binding the attention, if nothing else can be bound, is the way to win the inward insight at last, though perhaps not till some external shook have lessened the charm of eartlily things.
There is a danger greater than theirs— that, namely, of taking jntelleotual or testhetio interest in Church ordinances for devotion — yes, or merrly the excitement created by what must be called "religieus dissipation. It is a fatal error, and calls for St. Yet the suir. Each temptation over- come deepens the soil, and gives a hold to the root.
The great effort must V, not to dread or shun the services for fear of unreality, but to bring the Hie uji to them, and to bridle the tongue. To take the feast without the fast is a dangerous thing, and one to which we are far too prone ; fur unluckily, we have not only our own selfish selves in the way, but the world is far more angered at fasting than at feasting, and obstacles are thrown in the way on the plea of heulth and politeness, which bring in questions of obedience.
Now, there can be no question that fasts are quite as much a Divine ordinance as feasts, and that a litHe extra going to church, especially to varieties of servicea and preachers, is not the only observance enjoined on Christians. Unless something be given up so as to form a real mortihcft- tion on the appointed days, abstinence is not used, and then is no safeguard against religion becomirg only excitement and This has become even more necessary, so far as character and training are concerned, by the relaxation of strictness ou Sunday.
If the gravity and severity of the Lord's Day be changed for pleasure, and the Church services become and fitly too delights to the eye and ear, there is none of that bracing which the Puritanically inclined Christian had in giving up all secular recreation and listening to unornamented services. Noj a Cathohc Sunday of joy is only safe when preceded by a Catholio Priday, marked by the avoiding of some ordinary indulgence, tiie choice of some graver or more distasteful duty.
If beads of families would abstain from Kriday parties, and housewives make it possible to fast at meals without atttacting observation, the assistance to the young would he great. This is the lowest rule she acknowledges, as the test of actual ] visible union.
Her rules for such members as wish to be trained up withia I her, are morning and evening prayer, frequent Communion, and the due observance of Sundays, Feast and Fast days. Into closer details she does not go, because she has, in making universal rules, to allow for the vast diiferences made by station, business, and education. If she be seeking for something of the kind, I would suggest Eev. Carter's Treasury of Devotion, or E. It is desirable also to use a mid-day prayer. There is generally an opportunity of short retirement at noon, or at any rate before the mid-day meal, whea the recollection of onr Blessed Lord's Passion on the Cross shouM bo caUed before ua.
The devotions for the Hours will afford tis help here. That for the Sixth Hour is very short, and can be sold standing, so as not to attract observation. Which Imagination because it hath so great a stroke in producing this malady, and is so powerfull of it selfe, it will not be impertinent to my present discourse, to make a breefe Digression, of the force of it, and how it causeth this alteration.
Fracastorius lib. Those common apparitions in Bede and Gregory, and S r Bridgets revelations. The like effects, almost are to be seene in such as are awake: How many Chimaeras, Anticks, golden mountaines, and Castles in the ayre doe they build vnto themselues? Some ascribe all vices to a false and corrupt Imagination, Anger, Revenge, Lust, Ambition, Covetousnesse, which preferres false before that Page which is right and good, deluding the soule with false shews and suppositions.
But most especially in passions and affections, it shewes strange and evident effects: what will not a fearefull man conceaue in the darke; what strange formes of Divels, Witches, Goblins? Persina, that Aethiopian Queene in Heliodorus, by seeing the picture of Perseus and Andromeda, insteed of a Blackemoore was brought to bed of a faire white child.
And if wee may beleeue Bale, one of Pope Nicholas the thirds Concubines, by seeing of a r Beare was brought to bed of a Monster. Ipsam speciem quam animo effigiat, faetui inducit : she imprints that stampe vpon her child which shee t conceaues vnto her selfe.
And therefore, Lodovicus Vives lib. Page Avicenna speakes of one that could cast himselfe into a palsie when hee list, and some can imitate the tunes of Birds and Beasts, that they can hardly be discerned. It works not in sicke and melancholy men only, but even most forcibly sometimes in such as are found, it makes them suddainely sicke, and a alters their temperature in an instant. Sometimes death it selfe is caused by force of phantasie.
Another was sick of the Plague with conceit. Another, saith d Cardan out of Aristotle, fell downe dead which is familiar to women at any gastly sight seeing but a man hanged. A Iew in France, saith e Lodovicus Vives, came by chance over a dangerous passage, or plancke, that lay over a Brooke in the darke, without harme, the next day seeing what danger hee was in, fell downe dead.
Many will not beleeue such stories to be true, but laugh commonly at them, when they heare of them; but let these men consider with themselues, as f Peter Byarus illustrates it, if they were set to walke vp on a plancke on high, they would be giddy, vpon which they dare secure walk vpon the ground.
Many, saith Agrippa, g strong hearted men otherwise, tremble at such sights, dazell and are sicke if they looke but downe from an high place, and what moues them but conceit? An Empiricke many times, and a silly Chirurgeon, doth more strange cures then a rationall Physition. Tis opinion alone, saith k Cardan, that makes or marres Physitions, and he doth the best cures according to Hippocrates, in whom most trust.
How can otherwise bleare eyes in one man cause the like affection in another? Why doth one mans m yawning make another yawne? Why doth a carcasse bleed when the murtherer is brought before it, some weekes after the murther hath beene done? Read more of this subiect, in Wierus lib. Franciscus Valesius med. Agrippa de occult. Camerarius 1. Nymannus in orat. They are commonly n reduced into two inclinations, Irascibile and Concupiscibile.
The Thomists subdiuide them into eleuen, six in the Coueting, and fiue in the Invading. If good it is present, and then we absolutely ioy and loue, or to come, and then we desire, and hope for it. These 4. They are torne in peeces, as Actaeon was with his owne dogges, and u crucifie their owne soules. How it is a Symptome shall be shewed in his place. And so doth Rhasis cont. Gulanerius Tract. And if it take root once it ends in despaire, as z Faelix Platter obserues, and as in a Cebes table may well be coupled with it.
T'is the Eagle without question which the Poets fained to gnawe c Prometheus Heart. Ecclus It dries vp the bones, saith Solomon, cap. Fernelius lib. David confessed as much, Psal. I haue roared for the very disquietnesse of mine heart.
And Psal. I am like a bottle in the smoake. Christ himselfe, Vir dolorum, out of an apprehension of griefe, did sweat blood, Mark. His soule was heavy to the death, but no sorrow was like vnto his. Of heauinesse comes death. Worldly sorrow causeth death, 2. Niobe into a stone? But for griefe, she was senselesse and stupid. Seuerus the Emperour l died for griefe; and how m many myriades besides. Tanta illi est feritas, tanta est insania luctus. COsen german to Sorrow is Feare, or rather a sister; fidus Achates, and continuall companion, an assistant and a principall agent in procuring of this mischiefe; a cause and symptome as the other.
A sadder monster, or more cruell plague so fell Or vengeance of the Gods, ne're came from Styx or Hell. As Austin de Ciuit. Dei lib. Many men are so amased and astonished with feare, they knowe not where they are, what they say, t what they doe, and that which is worst, it tortures them many days before with continuall feare and suspition.
It causeth many times suddaine madnesse, and almost all manner of diseases, as I haue sufficiently illustrated in my a Digression of the force of Imagination, and shall doe more at large in my Section of b Terrors. Augustus Caesar durst not sit in the darke, nisi aliquo assidente, saith f Suetonius, Nunquam tenebris evigilauit. And t'is strange what women and children will conceaue vnto themselues, if they goe over a Church-yard in the night, or lye, or bee alone in a darke roome, how they sweat and tremble on a sudden.
Generous minds are often moued with shame, to dispaire for some publike disgrace. And he, saith Philo lib. Page de provid. The most generous spirits are most subiect to it. Aristotle because hee could not vnderstand the motion of Euripus for griefe and shame drowned himselfe.
Caelius Rhodiginus antiquar. Homerus pudore consumptus, was swallowed vp with this passion of shame, because he could not vnfolde that fishermans riddle. Sophocles killed himselfe m because a Tragedie of his was hissed of the stage. Apollonius Rhodius p wilfully banished himselfe, forsaking his country, and all his deare friends, because he was out in reciting his Poems, Plinius lib. Riccius expedit. Page ad Sinas lib. Hostratus the Frier, tooke that booke which Reuclin had writ against him, vnder the name of Epist.
Forestus med. And if so be that he cannot avoide it, as a Nightingale, quae cantando victa moritur, saith x Mizaldus, dies for shame if another bird sing better, he languisheth and pineth away for shame and griefe. ENvy and Malice are two linkes of this chaine, and both as Guianerius Tract. And therefore belike Salomon, Prov. Cyprian, vulnus occultum. Cyprian ser. Hall in Charact. For so often as an envious man, sees another man prosper, to be enriched, to thriue and be fortunate in the world, to get honors, offices, or the like, he repines and grieues.
If he heare of it, it gaules him a-fresh, and no greater paine can come to him, then to heare of another mans well-doing, t'is a dagger at his heart every such obiect. Thomas Aristotle li 2. Plato Philebo, Tully 3. Pindarus Od.
T'is a common disease, and almost naturall to vs, as i Tacitus holdes, to envy another mans prosperity: And t'is in most men an incurable disease. T'is the beginning of Hell in this life, and a passion not to be excused. Other sinnes last but for a while, the gut may be satisfied, anger remittes, hatred hath an end, envy neuer ceaseth. Divine and humane examples are very familiar, you may run and read them, as that of Saul and David, Cain and Abel, angebat illum non proprium peccatum, sed fratris prosperitas, saith Theodoret, it was his brothers good fortune gauled him.
Rachel envied her sister being barren Gen. Dauid had a touch of this vice, as he confesseth m Psal. But of all others r women are Page most weake, ob pulchritudinem inuidae sunt faeminae? Musaeus: aut amat, aut odit nihil est tertium. They loue or hate, no medium amongst them. Constantine Agricult.
Meat and drinke can doe such men no good, they doe alwayes grieue, sigh and grone, day and night, without all intermission, their brest is torne asunder : and a little after. And yet no passion so common. Hatred stirres vp contention, Prov. From a disposition, to an habit, for there is no difference betwixt a mad man, and an angry man, in the time of his fit: Anger, as Lactantius describes it lib. They are voide of reason, inexorable, blinde, and like r beasts and monsters for the time, say and doe they know not what, curse, sweare, raile, fight, and what not?
Aiax had no other cause of his madnesse; and Charles the 6. Aegesippus de excid. Looke in all our histories, and you shall almost meet with no other subiect, but what a a company of hairebraines haue done in their rage. We may doe well therefore, to put this in our precession amongs the rest: from all blindnesse of heart, from pride, vaine-glory , and hypocrisie, from envy, hatred and malice, anger, and all such pestiferous perturbations, good Lord deliuer vs.
They are not so many in number, but their causes be as diverse, and not one of a thousand free from them, or that can vindicate himselfe, whom that Ate dea, Homers goddesse Ate, hath not involued into this discontented ranke, or plagued with some Page misery or other. For to begin at the first houre of his birth, as f Pliny doth elegantly describe it, he is borne naked, and fals a g whining at the very first, he is swadled and bound vp like a prisoner, and cannot helpe himselfe, and so he continues to his liues end.
A man that is borne of a woman, is of short continuance, and full of trouble, Iob All his dayes are sorrow, and his trauels griefes, his heart also taketh not rest in the night Eccles 2. And cap. One is miserable, another man is ridiculous, a third odious.
Nunquid tentatio est vita humana super terram? Austin confess. And how much euill doth Lactantius and Theodoret speake of Socrates, a weake man, and so of the rest. And being so brutish, so divelishly bent one towards another, how is it possible Page but that we should be discontent of all sides, full of cares, woes and miseries. If this be not a sufficient proofe of our discontent, examine euery condition and calling a-part. The poore I referre for another n place, and their discontents.
If they be found, they feare diseases, if sicke, a weary of their liues: non est vivere sed valere vita. Fabius cannot tell halfe of them; they are the subiect of whole volumes, and shall some of them be more opportunely dilated elswhere. Our hearts faile vs, as it did Dauid Psal. Dei: x if they be moderate, both pernitious if they be exorbitant. There can be no greater plague for the present. If he chance to misse, and haue a canvas, he is in a hell on the other side, so dejected, that he is ready to hang himself, turne Heretick, Turke, or Traitor in an instant.
If you will see such discontented persons, there you shall likely find them. I knowe there be some men that are of opinion that couetous men are happy, and worldly wise, onely wise, and that there is more pleasure in getting of wealth then in spending, and that there is no pleasure in the world like vnto it.
Last of all they are afraid of want that they shall dy beggars, which makes them lay vp still, and dare not vse what they haue, what if a deare yeare come, or dearth, or some losse? These symptomes are elegantly expressed by Theophrastus in his Character of a covetous man, b lying in bed, he askes his wife whether she shut the trunks, and chests fast, capcase sealed, and whether the Hall doore be bolted, and though she say all is well, he riseth out of his bed in his shirt bare-foot and bare-legged to see whether it be so with a darke lanthorne searching every corner, scarse sleeping a winke all night.
Lucian in his Tr. To whom is sorrow saith Solomon, Pro. Vinum furoris, Ieremy calls it, And 7. They loose grace and glory, and gaine hell and eternall damnation. SElfe-loue, Pride, and Vaine-glory, which Chrysostome cals one of the Divels three great nets, f Bernard, an arrowe which pearceth the Soule through, and slayes it, a slye insensible enemy not perceaued. Though we seeme many times to be angry m and blush at our owne praises, yet our soule inwardly reioyceth, it puffes vs vp and makes vs swell beyond our bounds, and forget ourselues.
Page We will not suffer them to bee in secundis, no not in tertijs, what? Mecum confertur Vlysses? Though indeed they be far before vs. Only wise, only rich, fortunate, valorous, and faire, as that prowd r Pharisie, they are not as they suppose s like other men, of a purer pretious mettle. I burne with an incredible desire to haue my z name registred in thy book.
This is it which makes them take such paine, and breake out into such ridiculous straines, this high conceit of themselues, f to scorne al others; and brings them to that height of insolency, that they cannot endure to be contradicted, g or heare of any thing but their own Page commendations, as Hierom notes of such kinde of men.
When as indeed, in all wisemens iudgements they are h mad, beside themselues, derided and a common obloquy, insensati and come farre short of that which they suppose or expect. We marvail too, not as the vulgar we, But as we Gorgons, Harpy or Furies see.
Res imprimis violenta est, as Hierome notes, this common applause is a most violent thing, that fattens men, erects and deiects them in an instant. Let him be what hee will, those Parasites will overturne him. Commend his housekeeping, and he will begger himselfe, commend his temperance hee will starue himselfe. How did this work with Alexander, that would needs be Iupiters sonne, and goe like Hercules in a Lions skin.
Cotys king of Thrace would be married to r Minerva, and sent three severall messengers one after another, to see if she were come to his bed-chamber. And t'is a common humour incident to all men, when they are in great place, haue done wel, or deseru'd well, to applaud and flatter themselues. So many men, if any new honor, office, preferment, possession, or patrimony, ex insperato fall vnto them, for immoderate ioy and continuall meditation of it, cannot sleep, y or tell what they say or doe, they are so ravished on a suddaine.
LEonartus Fuchsius Institut. Arculanus in lib. Rhasis ad Almansorem cap. Marsilius Ficinus de sanit. So did Trincavellius lib. So Forestus obseruat. Ficinus in his 4. The same reasons are repeated by Gomesius lib. Voschius lib. He that desires this wished goale to gaine, Must sweat and freeze, before he can attaine.
Heare Tully pro Archia poeta. Looke for examples in Hildisheim spicel. Mercurialis consil. Prosper x Calenus his booke de atra bile. Goe to Bedlam and aske. And many times such is their misery, they deserue it: a a meere Scholler, a meere Asse. Thus they goe commonly meditating vnto themselues, thus they sit, such is their action and gesture. Fulgosus lib. S r Bernard rode all day long by the Leman lake, and asked at last where he was. Marullus lib. Or put case they be studious, industrious, of ripe wits, and happily good capacities, then how many diseases of body and mind must they endure?
It may be, their temperature will not endure it, but in striving to be excellent, to know all, they loose health, wealth, wit, life and all. For to say truth, artes hae non sunt Lucratiua, as Guido Bonat that Astrologer could foresee, they be not gainfull Arts. The rich Physition, honor'd Lawyers ride, Whil'st the poore Scholler foots it by their side.
Maligna litigantium cohors, togati vultures Lavernae alumni. Which haue no skill, but prating arrogance, No learning, such a purse-milking nation: Gown'd vultures, theeues, and a litigious rout Of coseners, that haunt this occupation. If you will not beleue me heare a brief of it, as it was not many yeares since, publikely preached at Pauls crosse, a by a graue Minister then, and now reverend Bishop of this land.
This being thus, haue not we fished faire all this while, that are initiated divines, to finde no better fruits of our labours, b hoc est cur palles, cur quis non prandeat hoc est? That there is a fault amongst vs, I confesse, and were there not a buyer, there would not be a seller, but to him that will consider better of it, it will more then manifestly appeare, c that the fountaine of these miseries proceeds from these griping Patrons.
But with what event doe they these things? With what face as i he quotes out of Austin, can they expect a blessing or an inheritance from Christ in Heauen, that defraud Christ of his inheritance here on earth. It is q aurum Tholosanum, and will produce no better effects.
Now they would, and cannot; f some want meanes, others will, all want g incouragement, as being forsaken almost and generally contemned. How deare of old, and how much respected was Plato of Dionysius? Plutarch to Traian? Seneca to Nero? Simonides to Hieron how much respected? Or if he do giue him entertainement, let him be never so well qualified, or pleade affinity, consanguinity, sufficiency, he shall serue 7 yeares as Iacob did for Rachel before he shall haue it.
Rich men keepe these Lecturers and fawning Parasites like so many Dogges at their tables, and filling their hungry guts with the offauls of their meate, they abuse them at their pleasure, and make them say what they please. If the Patron be precise, so must his Chaplaine be, or if he be Papisticall, he must be so too, or else bee turned out.
I haue not yet said. Quod tot Respub. To reckon vp all is a thing vnpossible, of some therefore of the most remarkable, of these contingent causes which produce Melancholy, I will briefly speake and in their order. Aulus Gellius lib, Giraldus Cambrensis Itinerar.
A sow pigge by chance sucked a Brach, and when she was growne, p would miraculously hunt all manner of Deere, and that as well or rather better then any ordinary hound. Cato for that reason would make his servants children sucke vpon his wiues breast, because by that meanes they would loue him and his the better, and in al likelyhood agree with them.
A more evident example that the minds are altered by milke, cannot be giuen then that of Dion which t he relates of Caligulas cruelty, it could neither be imputed to father or mother, but to his Nurse alone, that anointed her paps with blood still, which made him such a murderer, and to expresse her to a haire. And that of Tiberius who was a common drunkard, because his Nurse was such a one.
For bodily sicknesse there is no doubt to be made. And if we may beleeue Physitions, many times children catch the pox from a good Nurse. Botaldus c. But she was too iealous, if it be so, as many times it is, they must be put forth, I would then advise such mothers as z Plutarch doth in his booke de liberis educandis, and a S. Hierome lib. Laetae, de institut. And if such a Nurse may be found out, let Phauorinus and M.
For why may not the mother be a whore, a peevish drunken flurt, a waspish cholerick slut, a crased peece, a foole as many mothers are as soone as the Nurse? This is an excellent remedy, if good choice be made of such a Nurse. EDucation of these accidentall causes of melancholy, may iustly challenge the next place: for if a man escape a bad Nurse, he may be vndone by evill bringing vp. Austin in his first booke of his confess. Trincavellius Lib.
Too much indulgence causeth the like, many fond mothers especially, dote so much vpon their children like Aesops ape, till in the end they crush them to death. For such parents as doe otherwise, Plutarch esteemes like them that are more carefull of their shooes then of their feet, that rate their wealth aboue their children.
TVlly in the 4. This horrible kind of melancholy for he so termes it had bin often brought before him, and troubles and affrights commonly men and women, yong and old, of all sorts. This Terror is most vsually caused, m as Plutarch will haue, from some imminent danger, when some terrible obiect is at hand, heard, or seen, or conceiued, n truly appearing, or in a o dreame : and many times the more sudden the Accident, it is the more violent.
The p Massacre at Lions Many lose their wits q by the sudden sight of some spectrum or divell, a thing very common in all ages. The y Midianites were so affrighted by Gideons souldiers, they breaking but every one a pitcher; and z Hannibals army by such a panick feare, discomfited at the wals of Rome. Cranzius lib. The Prophet David replies, Psal. Rebuke hath broken mine heart, and I am full of heavinesse.
Leo Decimus that scoffing Pope, as Iovius hath registred in the 4. Page But what cannot such scoffers do, especially if they find a soft creature on whom they may worke: nay to say truth, who is so wise, or so discreet, that may not be humoured in this kind, especially if some excellent wits shall set vpon him; he that maddes others, if he were so humoured, would be as mad himselfe, as much grieued and tormented. Especially if it shall proceed from a virulent tongue, it cuts, saith Dauid, like a two edged sword.
And they smote with their tongues, Ier. T'is Castilio's caveat, and t Io. Play with me, but hurt me not: Iest with me, but shame me not. The children of Israell were tired with Manna, it is irksome to them so to liue, as to a bird in a cage, or dog in his kennell, they are awoary of it.
Marcus Aurelius and Salomon, that had experience of all worldly delights and pleasures, confessed as much of themselues, that what they most desired, was lothsome at the last, and that their lust could never be satisfied, all was vanity and affliction of mind.
They lye nastily amongst todes and frogs in a darke dungeon, in their own dung, in pain of body, in pain of soule: as Ioseph did. They liue solitary alone, sequestred from all company, but heart-eating melancholy, and for want of meat, must prey vpon themselues. But this is as cleare as the Sun, and needs no farther illustration. To avoid which, we wil take any pains, extremos currit mercator ad Indos. The rich is had in reputation because of his goods, Eccl.
He shall be befriended; for riches gather many friends, Prov, What dish will your good worship eat of? And though he be a filly soft fellow, and scarce haue common sence, yet if he be borne to fortunes, as I haue said, f iure haereditario sapere iubetur, he must be wise, g valiant and discreet by inheritance, he must haue honor and office in his course.
Nemo nisi dives honore dignus. Only this respect is giuen him, and wheresoever he comes, he may call for what he wil, Page and take place, by reason of his outward habit. But on the contrary if he be poore Pro. Tempora si fuerint nubila solus eris, left cold and comfortlesse, nullus ad amissas ibit amicus opes, all flye from him as from a rotten wall, now ready to fall on their heads.
Pro When once the tottering house begins to shrinke, Thither comes all the waight by an instinct. Much better t'is to breake thy neck, or drowne thy selfe i'th' Sea Then suffer irksome poverty. In that civill commonwealth of s China, the mother strangles her child, if she be not able to bring it vp, and had rather lose it, then sell it, or haue it endure such misery as poore men doe; t many make away themselues.
Apitius the Roman, when he cast vp his accompts, and found but Crownes left, murdred himselfe for feare he should be famished to death. Eccles 9. Gnatho scorned his old familiar friend, because of his apparell. To search out all, were an Herculean worke, and fitter for Theseus.
They that are most stayed and patient, are so furiously carried headlong by this passion of sorrow in this case, that braue discreet men many times forget them selues, and weep like children, many moneths together, as Rachel did, and will not be comforted. Our late Physitians are full of such examples.
The fury of this passion is so violent sometimes, that it daunts whole kingdomes and cities. How were we affected here in England for our Titus, delitiae humani generis, Prince Henries immature death, as if all our liues had exhaled with his? The same causes Arnoldus Villanovanus inculcates Breviar. Scenkius hath such another story, of one that became melancholy because he had ouershot himselfe, and spent his stock in vnnecessary buildings. I may conclude with Gregory, temporalium amor quantum afficit, cum haret possessio, tantum quum subtrahitur, vrit dolor ; riches doe not so much exhilerate vs with their possession, as they torment vs with their losse.
Polidore Virg. Sarisburiensis Policrat. The fore-knowledge of what shall come to passe crucifies many men, fore-told by Astrologers or Wisards, bee it ill accident or death it selfe. Severus, Adrian, Domitian, can testifie as much, of whose feare and suspition Sueton, Herodian, and the rest of those writers tel strange stories in this behalfe.
A true saying, Timor mortis morte peior, the feare of death is worse then death it selfe, and the memory of it to some rich men is a bitter as gaule, Ecclus. He that hath her is as if he held a Scorpion. Or if they be not equall in yeares. Cicilius in Agellius lib. Many other stories he relates in this kind. Parents many times disquiet their children, and they their parents.
Contention, brawling, law-sutes, falling out of neighbours and friends, discordia demens, Virg. Disgrace, Infamy, will almost effect as much, and that a long time after. All oppositions, dangers, perplexities, discontents, z to liue in any suspence are of the same nature, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos? Who can be secure in such cases?
Vnkind speeches trouble many. A Glasse-mans wife in Basil became melancholy because her husband said he would marry again if she died. Ronseus epist. Of the same nature is oppression, Eccles. Banishment a great misery as Tyrteus describes it, in an Epigram of his. A miserable thing t'is so to wander, And like a begger for to whine at doore, Contem'd of all the world an exile is, Hated, reiected, needy still, and poore.
Some are faire, but barren, and that gaules them. Hanna wept and did not eate, and was troubled in spirit, and all for her barrennesse. But what f tongue can suffice to speak of all. Cardan subtil. Cresias in Persicis makes mention of a Well in those parts, of which if any man drinke, i he is mad for Many such causes, much more could I say, But that for provender my cattle stay: The Sun declines, and I must needs away. Plato, Cyprian, and some others, as I haue formerly said, lay the greatest fault on the Soule, excusing the Body, others again accusing the Body, excuse the Soule, as a principall Agent.
And that which Gualter hath commented hom. Euery man is tempted by his own concupiscence, Iames 1. Levinus Lemnius lib. Perkins lib. Cases of Con. How should a man choose but be cholerick and angry, that hath his body so clogged with abundance of grosse humors? Arnoldus breviar lib. Iacchinus comment. Rhasis cap. Montaltus cap. Nicholas Piso cap. This opinion of theirs concurres with that of Galen lib. Guianerius giues an instance in one so caused by a quartan ague, and Montanus consil.
Botaldus in his booke de lue vener. Those are most apt to this disease, c that haue a hot Heart, and moist Braine, which Montaltus cap. Montanus puts the o splene stopped for a great cause. All these most part offend by inflammation, corrupting humors and spirits, in this non-naturall melancholy: for from these are ingendred fuliginous and black spirits.
Altomarus and Piso call it y an innate burning vntemperatnesse, turning blood and choler into melancholy. Both these opinions may stand good, as Bruel maintaines, and Capivaccius, si cerebrum sit calidius, z if the Braine be hote, the animall spirits will be hote, and thence comes madnesse: if cold, folly. I am of Capivaccius mind for my part. Amatus Lusitanus cent. Trincavelius consil. And in his consil. Prosper Calenius brings in Cardinal Caesius for a patterne of such as are so melancholy by long study: but examples are infinite.
His causes are inwarde or outwarde. Montaltus, cap. The veines are inflamed about the liver and stomacke. Hildesheim Spicel. Montanus col. Laurentius, cap. Others assigne the Mesenterium or midriffe distempered by heate, the wombe misaffected, stopping of of hemrods, with many others. All which Laurentius, cap. Solenander consil, 9. But most commonly feare, griefe, and some sudden commotion, or perturbation of the minde beginnes it, in such bodies especially as are ill disposed.
AS before, the cause of this kind of melancholy is inward or outward. Inward, n when the liver is apt to ingender such an humor, or the Spleene weake by nature and not able to discharge his office. Mercurialis out of Averroes and Avicenna condemnes all hearbs. All Digital Collections Login.
The anatomy of melancholy vvhat it is. VVith all the kindes, causes, symptomes, prognostickes, and seuerall cures of it. In three maine partitions with their seuerall sections, members, and subsections. Philosophically, medicinally, historically, opened and cut vp. By Democritus Iunior. With a satyricall preface, conducing to the following discourse.
Burton, Robert, Page 55 SECT. Causes of Melancholy.
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